Us History Study Notes

Topics: Slavery, Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther Pages: 6 (2301 words) Published: June 23, 2013
Exam one study guide US History to 1865

Tenochtitlan-city surrounded by Lake Texcoco. Aztec Capitol. Imitated the ruined temple city of Teotihuacan. Hernan Cortes defeated it in 1519 Pequot War- 1637 The Pequot Indians resided near the mouth of the Connecticut River which is also where Puritan settlers led by John Winthrop’s son were trying to launch a town. Fearing the Pequot would recruit all other Indians against the English, the English unleashed an all-out war with the Pequot. The Puritans allies were shocked at the carnage. Over 400 Indian men women and children died. New England negotiated most of their land out to keep the peace. Ignatius Loyola- Spanish soldier that led the new Catholic religious order called the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits and represented one dimension of the Counter-Reformation. Willing to give up their lives for their beliefs, the dedicated missionaries and teachers helped reenergize the Catholic faith and spread it to distant parts of the world. Roanoke Island-May 1587 John White led a English venture to America w/11 people, including women and children. The planned on settling in Chesapeake Bay but ended up North at Roanoke Island. White got send back in August to England for more supplies but he got held up for three yrs and when he returned in 1590 it was deserted. The word Croatoan carved on a post suggesting that the survivors joined the nearby tribe but no one knows. Its also known as the “Lost Colony” Encomiendas- The Spanish enconmienda system, imposed in Spains American empire, requiring Indian communities to supply labor or pay tribute to a local colonial overload. Basically the Spanish led occasional raids on the Plains Indians and kept some captives and shipped others to the south to be slaves in the Mexican silver mines. Iroquois League- a Native American confederacy, located in central New York, originally composed of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca Indians and later including the Tuscarora. This defeat sparked decades of warfare against the French. For the newcomers of France the victory sealed good relations with the Algonquin and Huron ensuring the survival of Quebec and spurring commerce. In 15 yrs Native Americans were trading 12-15,000 beaver pelts annually via the St Lawrence River Valley. John Rolfe- discovered a hybrid tobacco. The production of the leaf soared at Jamestown. Married Pocahontas who was the daughter of Chief Powhatan. Bacon’s Rebellion- armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by young Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. He wanted the governer to form a militia to protect settlers. As an incentive to Bacons recruits, they could sale and Indians they caught into slavery. Berkleys Plantations was taken over, a month later Bacons Army burned Jamestown to the ground. October Bacon died from dysentery. Berkley got reinforcements from England. Bacons men changed sides and received amnesty from the governor. Revolt crushed. Left a huge mark and Virginia created a labor source made up of African slaves. Brought indentured servants and slaves together. After this America started making laws to drive a wedge between races. Regulated the mixing between whites and blacks. Barracoons- An enclosure or barrack used for the confinement of slaves before their forced deportation from the African coast. Sometimes months at a time. Virginia Negro Act- 1705 mandated that white servants who were mistreated had the right to sue their masters in county court. Slaves had no right. Stono Rebellion- largest slave uprising in colonial North America that broke out in 1739 near the Stono River, 20 miles southwest of Charleston. Several factors fueled the rebellion; blacks exceeded whites nearly 2 to 1, working conditions worsened steadily, the Spanish in Florida had been luring slaves from South Carolina knowing that the promise of freedom might destabilize Carolinas profitable slave regime. Privateers- a ship or crew member...
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