Thomas Jefferson- became the victim of one of America's first "whispering campaigns." The Federalists accused him of having an affair with one of his slaves. Beat John Adams to win the election of 1800 by a majority of 73 to 65 electoral votes. Jefferson preferred to make the military smaller. Jefferson was forced to bend his thoughts of not using military force when the leader of Tripoli informally declared war on the United States. Jefferson sent the new navy to Tripoli and after 4 years of fighting, a deal was reached.
Louisiana Purchase- Robert Livingston- along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million. The Americans had signed 3 treaties and gotten much land to the west of the Mississippi. 820,000 square miles at 3 cents/acre. Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase. John Marshall- One Federalist judge, Chief Justice John Marshall, was not removed when the new Republican-Democratic Congress reeled the Judiciary Act of 1801 and repealed16 new federal judges. He served under presidents including Jefferson and others for 34 years. He shaped the American legal tradition more than any other person.
Marbury vs. Madison- James Madison, the new secretary of state, had cut judge Marbury's salary; Marbury sued James Madison for his pay. The court ruled that Marbury had the right to his pay but, the court did not have the authority to force Madison to give Marbury his pay. Most importantly, this decision showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution.
William Clark- Along with Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson sent Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the United...
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