Urinary Anatomy Phsyiology

Topics: Kidney, Nephron, Kidney anatomy Pages: 20 (3974 words) Published: August 26, 2013
Anatomy & Physiology
for Health Professions: An Interactive Journey
Second Edition

CHAPTER

17

The Urinary System: Filtration and Fluid Balance
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives
• Identify the parts of the urinary system. • Explain general functions of the urinary system. • Explain the relationships of the urinary system to the endocrine & circulatory systems. • Describe the structure & function of the nephron Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives
• Compare urinary system of the male with the female urinary system. • Identify the constituents of urine. • Differentiate processes of secretion, filtration, and reabsorption & where they occur in the nephron.

Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction
• The urinary system acts as a purification plant, cleaning the blood of waste materials. • Urinary system controls electrolyte and fluid balances for your body. • Kidneys filter blood, reabsorb and secrete ions, and produce urine. – Without this important function you would die in a few days. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Overview
• Consists of:
– 2 kidneys; bean-shaped organs located in the superior dorsal abdominal cavity that filter blood and make urine – Accessory structures – Ureter is a tube that carries urine from each kidney to – The single urinary bladder, located in the inferior ventral pelvic cavity.

Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Overview
• Bladder is basically an expandable sac • Urethra is the tube that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. • The job of the urinary system is to make urine, thereby controlling: – the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance – eliminating waste products

Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Overview
• To make urine, 3 processes are necessary:
– Filtration – filtering the blood. What passes through the filter is called a filtrate. – Reabsorption – substances stay in the body after being removed from urine – Secretion – substances move from the blood stream and leave the body in the urine

Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 17-1

Anatomy of the urinary system.
Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

External Anatomy of the Kidney
• The kidney is covered by a fibrous layer of connective tissue called the renal capsule. – Part that gives the kidney it’s bean shape is called the renal hilum.

• At the hilum
– renal arteries bring blood to the kidneys to be filtered – renal veins take the filtered blood away from the kidney. – The ureter is also attached at the hilum to transport urine from the kidney to the bladder. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Internal Anatomy of the Kidney
• The kidney can be divided into 3 layers:
– Renal cortex – outer layer –this is where blood filtration occurs – Renal medulla – middle layer – contains a number of triangle-shaped, striped areas called renal pyramids  Composed of collecting tubules for the urine that is formed in the kidney

Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Internal Anatomy of the Kidney
• The kidney can be divided into 3 layers:
– Renal pelvis – inner layer – a funnel, divided into 2 or 3 large collecting cups called major calyces.  Each major calyx is divided into several minor calyces, forming cup-shaped areas around the tips of the pyramids.

Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Internal Anatomy of Kidney
• The blood is filtered by millions of tiny filters in the cortex, • Filtrate flows through tiny tubules in the medulla and collects in the renal pelvis. • Renal pelvis, the enlarged proximal portion of the ureter, empties into the ureter where...
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