topic 1

Topics: Sociology, Psychology, Group dynamics Pages: 6 (1179 words) Published: June 18, 2014


Management and Social Science Department
Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education
(FOSEE)

Group Dynamics
Foundation in Management

ONLINE NOTES

Topic 1

Topic 1
Introduction to Group Dynamics

“Although the scientific investigations of group work are but a few years old, I don’t hesitate to predict that group work – that is, the handling of human beings not as isolated individuals, but in the social setting of groups – will soon be one of the most important theoretical and practical fields … there is no hope for creating a better world without a deeper scientific insight into the … essentials of group life.”

Kurt Lewin (1943)
•Overview
•What is a group?
•Why groups are important
•Nature and types of groups
•What does it take to have a productive group?
•Stages of group development
•The field of group dynamics
•Kurt Lewin
•Summary questions
•Can you Imagine your Life without Belonging to Other People? •Membership in groups is inevitable and ubiquitous.
•We are not able to survive without belonging to groups – we are born into one, and interact in groups for most of our lives •Our personal identity is derived from the way in which we are perceived and treated by other members of groups we belong to. •Understanding group dynamics is essential to

–Maintaining a viable family
–Effective business and industries
–Education
–Long term maintenance of psychological health
•Knowledge of group dynamics can and will change your life

Group Dynamics
•Group dynamics is the scientific study of:
–The nature of groups
–Behavior in groups
–Group development
–Interrelations between groups and individuals
–Interrelations between groups and other groups
•A Group is a Number of Individuals who …
a. Join together to achieve a goal
b. Are all affected by the same event – they are interdependent c. Interact with one another
d. Perceive themselves as belonging to a group
e. Whose interactions are structured by a set of rules and norms f. Influence each other
g. Are trying to satisfy some personal need through their joint association Which definition(s) do you agree with?

•The Group Definition we are going to work with
•Two or more individuals
•In face-to-face interaction
•Each member is aware of
–Positive interdependence as they strive to achieve mutual goals –His/her membership in the group
–The others who belong to the same group

•Group Structure: Roles and Norms
•Roles
–differentiate the responsibilities of group members
–Set of expectations defining the appropriate behavior of an occupant of a position toward other related positions

•Norms
–integrate members’ efforts into a unified whole
–Common beliefs regarding group members’ appropriate behavior, attitudes and perceptions; (implicit and explicit) rules that regulate the behavior of group members

•Roles and Status
•Role conflict, Milgram’s study of obedience (1974)
•Status:
–Function of the degree to which an individual’s contribution is crucial –How much power (control over outcomes) an individual has
–The extent to which the person embodies some idealized/admired characteristic. –Status and power usually go hand in hand, but not always

•Norms
•Group’s common beliefs about appropriate behavior, attitudes, perceptions; help maintain behavioral consistency, and predict other members’ behavior •Not imposed, develop out of the interaction among members à Social products •Muzafer Sherif’s (1936) study

•Newcomb’s (1943) study of group norms at Bennington College •The Group Performance Curve

Pseudo group:
Members assigned to work together, but à perception of competitive structure. Performance below individual level. Traditional work group:
Members assigned to work together, but are held accountable individually à perception of individual work structure. Members seek information from each other, but are not motivated to share information....
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