occurred between the 16th and 18th centuries; European powers did not usually acquire territory in Africa and Asia but rather built a series of trading stations; the New World was the exception--many countries established colonies in the Americas; many Europeans also emigrated from their homelands
Began in 1880s in Africa, earlier in Asia; in 1800 Europeans controlled about 7% of the world's territory--by 1914 they controlled 84%; Britain's control of Egypt in the 1880s became the model for the "New Imperialism;" Major causes include: search for new markets and raw materials, missionary work, and new military and naval bases to protect one's interests against other European powers Social Darwinism, "survival of the fittest"
ideology of Herbert Spencer, rationalized the conquest of weak countries by stronger, more civilized ones, justified military superiority and conquest by the Europeans "White Man's Burden"
racist and patronizing view that preached that the "superior" Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to "uncivilized" peoples in other parts of the world
"Scramble for Africa"
in 1880, Europeans controlled 10% of Africa; by 1914, controlled all except Liberia & Ethiopia; the Berlin Conference established the rules among European powers for carving up Africa
colony of Belgium; trading stations established in 1879, and Leopold II was given control of the Congo; the Belgian rulers savagely treated the indigenous peoples in their quest for rubber and ivory; Leopold's incursion into Congo basin raised the question of the political fate of black Africa (south of the Sahara); as did Britain's conquest of Egypt
Monarch of Belgium who acquired the Congo in Africa
Berlin Conference, 1884-85
1884-85: established the "rules" for conquest of Africa; provisions: no imperial power could claim a territory in Africa unless it effectively controlled that territory; slavery and the slave trade in Africa was terminated; sought to prevent international conflicts between European nations over the issue of imperialism; as a result, the "scramble for Africa" was on Battle of Omdurman
1898: General Horatio H. Kitchener defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed 11,000 (with machine guns) while only 28 Britons died
Cecil Rhodes had become Prime Minister of Cape Colony in South Africa; diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal region and Rhodes wanted to extend his influence there but Boers controlled the region (the descendents of white Dutch settlers); Boers initially successful in repelling British troops; Kruger Telegram:1902, Kaiser Wilhelm II dispatched a telegram to the Boers congratulating them on defeating British invaders without need of German assistance; Anger at Germany swept through Britain; Massive British force eventually defeated Boers and in 1910 the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Cape Colony, & Natal combined to form the Union of South Africa Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
Japan gained Taiwan as a result; this conflict revealed China's weaknesses and resulted in further control by imperialist powers Robert Clive
captured military posts in Madras and England ousted France from India in the name of the British East India Company Ming and Qing dynasties
Ming extended rule into Mongolia and Central Asia. Soon Li revolted and Manchus took over. Qing corrected serious social and economic ills with peace and prosperity. What led Britain and China into conflict in the 1820's and 30's? opium trade- opium to China, silver to West
continued the modernization of Egypt, including the completion of the Suez Canal, but also drew the country deeply into debt. This allowed direct European control of Egypt. Ismail Ali
American Commodore who entered Edo (Tokyo) Japan and demanded diplomatic negotiations w/ the emperor. The Japanese were frightened to resist Perry's navy and therefore conceded to a treat that opened two ports permitting trade -- 5 years later they signed other similar agreements formally "Opening Japan" Matthew Perry
The Imperial government of China was forced to cede Hong Kong to Britain, pay $100 Million, and open four large cities to foreign trade w/ low tariffs -- allowed opium trade to flourish in China Treaty of Nanking (1842)
To prevent Egypt from going bankrupt, Britain and France intervened politically. Foreign financial control provoked a violent nationalistic reaction in Egypt that led to British occupation of the country until 1956. 1842 Western penetration of Egypt
A force of samurai swiftly wrested political / governmental power from Americans with minimal bloodshed. The Meiji leaders were modernizers who brought liberal and economic reforms. 1. They abolished the old decentralized government and formed a strong, unified state. 2. They declared social equality and allowed freedom of movement. 3. They created a free, competitive, governmentstimulated economy. 4. They built a powerful modern navy and reorganized the army. Meiji Restoration of 1867
"Japanese "opening" of Korea in 1876
This shows that Japan was copying the imperialism of the western society. It proved that Japan was strong, and cemented the nation together in a great mission. Having "opened" Korea with the gunboat diplomacy of imperialism in 1876, Japan decisively defeated China in a war over Korea in 1894 to 1895 and took Formosa. By 1910, with the annexation of Korea, Japan had become a major imperialist power; continually expanding it's influence in China in spite of sharp protests from its distant Pacific neighbor, the United States. Japan became the first non-western country to use an ancient love of country to transform itself and meet the challenges of western expansion. It also demonstrated that an Asian nation could defeat a western power. (884) US policy which opposed formal annexation of Chinese territory, which may have tipped the balance in not splitting China among the various European powers. Open Door Policy
A place in Egypt where British were pushing southward and met foe - Muslim tribesman who attacked w/ spears. Brits were using recently invented machine guns; 11,000 Muslims died versus 28 Brits. This was the fate of all native peoples who resisted Eurpoean rule; they were blown away by superior military forces. Omdurman
had this commissioned to be built in order to bring western modernization to Egypt. It also cut the distance to travel from Europe to Asia in half. Suez Canal
# British merchants and the Chinese clashed over the sale of opium and the opening of Chinese ports to Europeans. The opium war in 1839-1842 led to the British acquisition of Hong Kong and the opening of four cities to trade (the Treaty of Nanking). A second war in 1856-1860 resulted in more gains for Europeans. British Opium Trade / Opium Wars
Radical economist who delivered a forceful attack in his Imperialism. He contended that the rush to acquire colonies was die to the economic needs of unregulated capitalism, particularly the need of the rich to find an outlet for their surplus capital. He also argued that the quest for empire diverted attention away from domestic reform and the need to reduce the great gap between the rich and the poor. (880) Heinrich von Treitschke
Stated that "All great nations in the fullness of their strength have desire to set their mark upon barbarian lands and those who fail to participate in this great rivalry will play a pitiable role in time to come. (873) Great Trek of the Boers
The British takeover of Cape Town led the Dutch cattle ranchers and farmers to make their great trek to the interior in 1835. There, they fought the Zulu and Xhosa peoples for land. Clermont experiment of 1807
The power of steam revolutionized transportation by sea as well as by land. In 1807 inhabitants of the Hudson Valley in New York saw the "Devil on the way to Albany in a saw-mill," as Robert Fulton's steamship Clermont traveled 150 miles upstream in thirty-two hours. Steam power finally began to supplant sails on the oceans of the world in the late 1860's.