The Urban Heat Island and Its Impact on Heat Waves and Human Health in Shanghai

Topics: Global warming, Heat wave, Urban heat island Pages: 45 (6595 words) Published: November 20, 2012
Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75–84
DOI 10.1007/s00484-009-0256-x

ORIGINAL PAPER

The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves
and human health in Shanghai
Jianguo Tan & Youfei Zheng & Xu Tang & Changyi Guo & Liping Li & Guixiang Song & Xinrong Zhen & Dong Yuan & Adam J. Kalkstein & Furong Li & Heng Chen

Received: 17 December 2008 / Revised: 29 July 2009 / Accepted: 3 August 2009 / Published online: 1 September 2009 # ISB 2009

Abstract With global warming forecast to continue into
the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to
increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions,
these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban
heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island
(UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological
J. Tan (*) : X. Zhen
Shanghai Urban Environmental Meteorology Center,
951 Jinxiu Road, Pudong,
Shanghai 200135, China
e-mail: jianguot@21cn.com
Y. Zheng
Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science &Technology,
Nanjing 210044, China
X. Tang
Shanghai Meteorological Bureau,
166 Puxi Road,
Shanghai 200030, China
C. Guo : G. Song : D. Yuan
Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control & Prevention,
1380 ZhongShan West Road,
Shanghai 200336, China
L. Li : F. Li : H. Chen
Injury Prevention Research Centre,
Medical College of Shantou University,
22 Xinling Road,
Shantou City 515041, Guangdong Province, China
A. J. Kalkstein
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering,
United States Military Academy,
West Point, NY, USA

records (1975–2004) were examined for 11 first- and
second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai.
Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded
in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality
counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998–
2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that
different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and

heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An
examination of summer mortality rates in and around
Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban
regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly
responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects
from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.
Keywords Global warming . Urban heat island . Heat wave .
Human health

Introduction
In recent years, the impact of weather on human health has
become an issue of increased significance, especially
considering the potential impacts of global warming and
an increased urban heat island effect due to urbanization
(Kunst et al. 1993; Kalkstein and Greene 1997; Guest et al.
1999; Smoyer et al. 2000). Warming of the climate system
is unequivocal. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)
clearly indicates that the updated 100-year linear trend
(1906–2005) of global surface temperature is 0.74 K. The
warming trend over the last 50 years has averaged 0.13 K
per decade and 11 of the last 12 years (1995–2006) rank
among the 12 warmest years since 1850 (IPCC 2007). A

Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75–84

76

warming climate will likely result in an increase in the
frequency and intensity of heat waves (McMichael et al.
1996; Meehl et al. 2001; Patz and Khaliq 2002).
The urban heat island (UHI) has become one of the largest
problems associated with the urbanization and industrialization of human civilization, as the increased temperatures associated with the UHI tend to exacerbate the threats to
human health posed by thermal stress. As a result, the UHI
has been a central theme among climatologists, and it is well...

References: Anderson HR, Ponce de Leon A, Bland MJ et al (1996) Air
pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987–92
312:665–669
Balling RC, Cerveny RS (1987) Long-term associations between wind
Basu R, Samet JM (2002) An exposure assessment study of ambient
heat exposure in an elderly population in Baltimore, Maryland.
Environ Health Perspect 110:1219–1224
Böhm R (1998) Urban bias in temperature time series - a case study
for the city Vienna, Austria. Clim Change 38:113–128
Buechley RW, Van Bruggen J, Truppi LE (1972) Heat island equals
death island? Environ Res 5(1):85–92
Clarke JF (1972) Some effects of the urban structure on heat mortality.
Environ Res 5:93–104
Clarke JF, Bach W (1971) Comparison of the comfort conditions in
Conti S, Meli P, Minelli G et al (2005) Epidemiologic study of
mortality during the Summer 2003 heat wave in Italy
Res 98(3):390–399
de’Donato F, Stafoggia M, Rognoni M et al (2008) Airport and citycentre temperatures in the evaluation of the association between
heat and mortality. Int J Biometeorol 52(4):301–310
Dessai S (2002) Heat stress and mortality in Lisbon part I
construction and validation. Int J Biometeorol 47:6–12
Dessai S (2003) Heat stress and mortality in Lisbon part II
Ding JC, Zhang ZK, Xi H et al (2002) A study of the high temperature
distribution and the heat island effect in the summer of the
Shanghai Area. Chin J Atmos Sci 26(3):412–420 (in Chinese)
Figuerola PI, Mazzeo N (1998) Urban-rural temperature differences in
Buenos Aires. Int J Climatol 18:1709–1723
Gosling SN, McGregor GR, Paldy A (2007) Climate change and heatrelated mortality in six cities part1: model construction and
validation. Int J Biometeorol 51:525–540
Gosling SN, Lowe JA, McGregor GR (2009) Associations between
Grize L, Huss A, Thommen O et al (2005) Heat wave 2003 and
mortality in Switzerland
Guest CS, Willson K, Woodward AJ et al (1999) Climate and
mortality in Australia: retrospective study, 1979–1990, and
predicted impacts in five major cities in 2030. Clim Res 13:1–15
Hajat S, Kovats RS, Atkinson RW et al (2002) Impact of hot
Henschel A, Burton LL, Margolies L et al (1969) An analysis of the
heat deaths in St
Nations Health 59:2232–2242
Huynen MMTE, Martens P, Schram D et al (2001) The impact of heat
Environ Health Perspect 109:463–470
IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Johnson H, Kovats RS, McGregor G et al (2005) The impact of the
10:168–171
Jones TS, Liang AP, Kilbourne EM et al (1982) Morbidity and
Kalkstein LS, Greene JS (1997) An evaluation of climate/mortality
relationships in large U.S
climate change. Environ Health Perspect 105:84–93
Katsoulis BD, Theoharatos GA (1985) Indications of the urban heat
island in Athens, Greece. J Clim Appl Meteorol 24:1296–1302
Kim YH, Baik JJ (2002) Maximum urban heat island intensity in
Seoul. J Appl Meteorol 41:651–659
Klysik K, Fortuniak K (1999) Temporal and spatial characteristics of
Kunst AE, Looman CWN, Mackenbach JP (1993) Outdoor air
temperature and mortality in the Netherlands: a time-series
analysis. Am J Epidemiol 137:331–341
Lee D (1992) Urban warming? An analysis of recent trends in
London’s heat island. Weather 47:50–60
McMichael A, Haines A, Slooff R et al (1996) Climate change and
human health. WHO, Geneva
Meehl GA, Zwiers F, Evans J et al (2001) Trends in extreme weather and
84
Oke TR (1973) City size and the urban heat island
7:769–779
Patz JA, Khaliq M (2002) Global climate change and health:
Piver WT, Ando M, Ye F et al (1999) Temperature and air pollution as
risk factors for heat stroke in Tokyo, July and August 1980–
1995. Environ Health Perspect 107:911–916
Rooney C, McMichael AJ, Kovats RS (1998) Excess mortality in
Rydman RJ, Rumoro DP, Silva JC et al (1999) The rate and risk of
heat-related illness in hospital emergency departments during the
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Urban Heat Island Essay
  • Urban Heat Island Effect Essay
  • Essay about Explain How Urban Heat Islands Develop? to What Extent Uhi Influence
  • heat of neutralization Essay
  • Essay about Heat
  • Essay about Turning the Heat On
  • Advice on a heat wave Essay
  • Heat Wave Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free