THE TEN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES AND EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS
ANDRES SORIANO COLLEGE
MANGAGOY BISLIG CITY
PROF.RADIGUNDA HAGANUS, Ph.D
JESSEL L. LUSANTA
THE TEN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES
1. Social Reconstructionism
Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.
Rather than "teaching as banking," in which the educator deposits information into students' heads, social reconstructionism saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world.
For social reconstructionists and critical theorists, curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems, such as violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation, and inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues (particularly in social studies and literature), inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspectives are the focus. Community-based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also strategies.
Existentialism is often described as the belief in "existence before essence" -- that is, that before any structure or form that dictates the nature of the world and humanity, we exist. Existentialists examine what it means to exist as a human being in the world, and existentialists believe that understanding who we are as human beings is the key to understanding the world. The term existentialism is a broad one; the diverse forms it takes generally have some common themes:
Existentialists think about and try to answer the question that Walker Percy asks, "Who am I and why am I here?" I do exist, and what does that mean, if anything? Do I have a purpose in life, or does life have a meaning?
Existentialism is more subjectively oriented than objectively oriented. Objectivity is certainty, material things, actual objects, what physically exists. Subjective truth is concerned with experience, perception, being, relationship, values, and these cannot be verified; they are never certain. In addition, life is constantly a "becoming," never a completed "end," and so always open-ended and uncertain. A subjective viewpoint is also concerned with the "whole" person and relationship to others as whole - for who they are ontologically and unconditionally, not what they can do functionally (that is, not for their "use" to us or to the world).
Postmodernism is a general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality.
For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the world means to us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of one's own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal.
Pragmatism is a rejection of the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Instead, pragmatists develop their philosophy around the idea...
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