Assumes the importance of;
- childhood experiences have a great influence on our adult lives, shaping our personalities. childhood events can remain in the unconscious + cause problems as adults Freud – all children go through 5 x psychosexual stages of development; - relationships Particularly family members and especially parent and child, used as a template for adult relationships. -the unconscious mind influences our behaviour. Often the conscious mind is unaware of thoughts and emotions that occur in the unconscious, -that can have an effect on our conscious mind.
-small amount of activity that we know about
-things we could be aware of if we wanted to be
-unaware of and can’t become aware of
ID- Infantile pre-socialised.
EGO- executive part of personality, logic+ decision.
SUPEREGO-moral, punishment/reward parent. Born with it, inherited
Based on upbringing
Based on morals
Instincts; sexuality and aggression
Enables distinguish between wished + ID impulse
Represents internalised parental morals Excitation and builds up pressure
Modified by external world, environment
Operates according to morals Demands immediate gratification
to bear upon the ID
Observes, orders, judges and threatens EGO-Guilt-bad, Ego rewards-good. Governed-pleasure
Aim; reduce excitation
Defer gratification and postpone satisfaction.
Corresponds to rewarding or punishing parent. -
An overdeveloped section= abnormality.
-ID, ego and super ego are always in conflict,
-ego uses defence mechanisms to reduce anxiety
Repression-keeping threatening thoughts out of conscious, suppressing them. “a woman doesn’t remember being raped” Displacement- moving impulses away from a threatening object “blaming the wife at home for a drink driving crash” Projection – putting own beliefs/behaviours onto someone else “talking about how stupid something is to someone assuming the other person feels the same way, without any indication” Denial – not accepting the reality “rejecting HIV diagnosis, mistake or lousy doctor” Psychosexual stages of development
Pleasure centres on the mouth
Sucking, biting, chewing
Pleasure centres on bladder elimination
coping with demands for control
Oedipus/ Electra complex (3-6yrs)
Pleasure centres on genitals Coping with incestuous feelings
Dormant sexual feelings
Maturation of sexual interests
-boys love for mother, becomes increasingly passionate
-jealous of father, wants him out of the way
-observes females have no penis
-makes desire for mother unconscious
-represses hostile feelings for father and identifies with him, comes to act like him -superego develops and the male sex role (gender)
-believes already been castrated
-blames mother for penis envy
-substitutes penis envy for wish for a baby
-turns to father as a love object
-identifies with the mother, anaclictic identification, the good girl that a mother would want -no fear of castration = weaker superego
-sequence of psychosexual stage, determined by motivation.
-how a child is treated at each stage is crucial
-excessive gratification + extreme frustration = fixation at a stage -physical and sexual maturation complete = complete personality development
Application to anorexia
Anorexia may be a response to early childhood experiences
Carter et al - 48% anorexics reported childhood sexual abuse (small sample) Freud – problems during oral stage substitute for sexual expression -
Fear of adult sexuality, eating symbolic of sexual penetration -
Not eating symbolic of repressing sexual impulses,
Unconscious, avoid growing up and becoming independent.
Amenorrhoea, periods stopping, returning the body to prepubescent state. Evaluation
-significant and influential as its led to...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document