The Holocaust

Topics: Nazi Germany, The Holocaust, Antisemitism Pages: 9 (1308 words) Published: March 6, 2014
History Study Notes

Topic - Holocaust

The Holocaust!
Topic 1: Term 1!

!
!

ASSESSMENT 1: WEEK 5 (25 FEBRUARY)!

Stage 1: Discrimination (1933-1939)!

!
Period in which Nazis excluded Jews from all aspects of life via a range of social policies and legislative changes. In doing so they also dehumanised them and made them scapegoats of the Nazi regime.! !

!

- Hatred of Jews = anti-Semitism !

!

Key Features!

!
Social Discrimination!

- Gradual process of discrimination!
- 1933: Commenced by boycotting Jewish establishments, dissuading Germans from engaging with Jewish people !

- Establishment of the Minister for Propaganda and Public Enlightenment! - Goebbles!
- Relevant? They controlled the dialogue around Jews - portraying in media the Jews as evil and inhuman!

- Censorship!
- Establishment of the Hitler Youth - basically put young Germans into ‘cadets’ that taught them

!

Nazi ideology - essentially indoctrinating the German youth!

Legislative Discrimination!

- Legislation enforced anti-Jewish sentiment!
- 15 September 1935: Nuremberg Laws!
- Law prevented marriage/sexual relations between Jews and Germans (punishment was imprisonment and death penalty)!

- Enforced Hitler’s ideology regarding the Aryan race - making it an official doctrine! - Citizenship: Jews could not be German citizens!
Page 1 of 6

History Study Notes

Topic - Holocaust

!
!

9 - 10 November 1938: Kristallnacht (night of broken glass)!

- Series of Nazi-organised pogroms against the Jews!
- 24 hours of violence against Jews!
- Details!
- Destroyed property; in particular burning many synagogues and homes! - Desecrated Jewish graves!
- Arrested 25, 000 - 30, 000 Jewish men and sent them to labour/concentration camps! - Killed 91 Jews!
- Trashed and looted over 7, 000 Jewish establishments!
- Nazi’s blamed it on spontaneous violence by citizens (although the SA started it dressed as regular civilians) in an attempt to avenge von Rath’s death!

!

- German officials only intervened to prevent the destruction of German property and deaths!

Practice Question!
Explain how life changed for German Jews between 1933 and 1936.!

!

Life changed immeasurably for German Jews due to the vast amount of anti-Jewish legislation between 1933-1936. In particular the passing of the 1935 Nuremberg Laws radically altered life for Jews. These laws deprived them of their citizenship, by requiring that all citizens of the Reich be Aryan, and were dehumanised by banning relationships and marriage between Jews and Aryans. Furthermore, other legislation was passed to prevent Jews who owned shops and property from being allowed to make any revenue and thus reducing them to abject poverty, which was particularly exacerbated (worsened) by the social practices of boycotting all Jewish establishments. Essentially, from 1933-1936 German Jews experienced a gradual isolation from German society as the Nazis sought to make them the target of their radical social policy. !

!
!

Page 2 of 6

History Study Notes

Topic - Holocaust

Stage 2: The Ghettos (1939-45) !

!
Ghettos were areas where Jews were confined from the rest of a city and population. !

!

Key Features!

!
Officials!

- Run by all-Jewish councils (Judenrat) and police forces!
- Followed Nazi orders for fear of repercussions !
- Council members = privileged positions BUT likely to be the first punished if Nazis displeased!

!

Living Conditions!

-

!

Inadequate conditions!
Food: food supplies were inadequate - people struggled to avoid starvation! Overcrowding!
Poor sanitation and hygiene leading to many diseases (rampant illness)! Insufficient fuel and clothing for winter heating needs (many died of hypothermia) ! Stealing/crime was common!

Resistance !

- Black market: Smuggled food, medicine and weapons!
- Poor control/authority - laws regularly broken!
- Some schooling for children...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Hitler's Holocaust Essay
  • Essay about Time of the Holocaust
  • Holocaust Essay
  • Ww2 Holocaust Essay
  • Prejudice, Holocaust Essay
  • The Holocaust Essay
  • Holocaust Essay
  • The holocaust Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free