The agricultural revolution

Topics: Industrial Revolution, 18th century, Age of Enlightenment Pages: 10 (2221 words) Published: October 1, 2013
The agricultural revolution
refers to the important changes that took place in agriculture changes in the 18th century England CHANGES
1. Enclosure movements :
Reasons:
Growing population (need more food)
Numbers of war fought with france
Farmers wanting to have one or two large blocks of land instead of few scattered strip Methods:
Landlord tried to set up large estates where they could use new farming methods and machines Forced the tenant farmers to give up their land, exchange land with other landlords, or enclosed common land by building fences around it (enclosure movement) Enclosure movement (see worksheet)

Results:
Each farmer would have a compact farm which he enclosed by building fences or hedges They lost the right to graze their animals in the common lands and to collect firewood from the forests Many were forced to sell their land and worked as farm labourers Others left the villages and worked in the factories in the new industrial towns. Farms became bigger

Farmers could use machines and experiment with new farming methods 2. Crop rotation
In the three-course rotation, one-third of the land was left fallow each year, so the soil could regain its lost fertility, but this was a very wasteful system. In the new system which was introduced by lord Townshend. This system raised production because no field was left fallow. Winter crops like turnip and clover were provided for animals, so farmers don’t have to slaughter their animals when winter came. Land became more fertile because clover could make the soil rich.

Field 1
Field 2
Field 3
Field 4
Year 1
wheat
clover
barley
Turnips
Year 2
clover
barley
Turnips
Wheat
Year 3
Barley
turnips
Wheat
Clover
Year 4
turnips
wheat
Clover
barley

3. new farming machine
Jethro Tull invented the seedrill for sowing seeds and horse-hoe for weeding in the early 18th century. And new threshing nad winnowing machines later. They made farming more efficient and increased food production 4. scientific breeding

Robert Bakewell produced new breeds of cattle, sheep and pigs by scientific methods. This increased meat supply 5. the spread of new knowledge
new farming methods wear spread throughout England by books and magazines. “annals of agriculture” were published by Arthur young, king George III wrote essays for it EFFECTS
1. poor farmers driven out of the villages by enclosure became cheap labor for industry 2. greater food supply for the growing population
Industrial revolution
a rapid development in science, technology, Industry and commerce, also called the age of machines, as numerous machines were invented during the revolution CAUSES TO BEGAN IN BRITAIN
raw materials (rich in coal and iron)
capital (earned profits from trading, and had capital to invest in industry) national safety (protected by the English channel and the strong navy) capitalism (British government wouldn’t interfere in economic matters) labor market (growing population, enough labor supply, greater demands for goods) inventions (many new inventions and discover were made by Englishmen

DEVELOPMENTS
Textile industry
before industrial revolution most products were made by hand or with simple tools at home (domestic system) then, the textile industry used machines because many people wanted cotton clothing’s but, the machines were expensive, only the rich could buy them. They were too large and heavy to be used in homes machines were placed in factories

workers were supervised by the managers.
John kay
Flying shuttle
Hand operated waving machine, clothes wovened much faster
James hargreaves
Spinning jenny
Quickened spinning and produced more cotton thread
Edmund Cartwright
Power loom
Weaving machine run by steam power, speeded up the weaving for cloth

New sources of power
the invention of steam engine solved the problem of using water and animals for power as water couldn’t always be found and animals were too slow James watt
An efficient...
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