systemic anatomy

Topics: Larynx, Muscles of the head and neck, Vagus nerve Pages: 7 (1831 words) Published: December 5, 2013

1. Give OIAN of the tongue.
The muscles of tongue can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic groups. The intrinsic muscles lie entirely within the tongue, while the extrinsic muscles attach the tongue to other structures. The extrinsic muscles reposition the tongue, while the intrinsic muscles alter the shape of the tongue for talking and swallowing. Extrinsic tongue muscles, by definition, originate from structures outside the tongue and insert into the tongue. The four paired extrinsic muscles protrude, retract, depress, and elevate the tongue: Muscle

Genioglossus muscle
mandible-(Genial Tubercles)
hypoglossal nerve
Protrudes the tongue as well as depressing its center.
Hyoglossus muscle
hyoid bone
hypoglossal nerve
Depresses the tongue.
Styloglossus muscle
styloid process
hypoglossal nerve
Elevates and retracts the tongue.
Palatoglossus muscle
palatine aponeurosis
pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve
Depresses the soft palate, moves the palatoglossal fold towards the midline, and elevates the back of the tongue.

Intrinsic muscles
Four paired intrinsic muscles of the tongue originate and insert within the tongue, running along its length. These muscles alter the shape of the tongue by: lengthening and shortening it, curling and uncurling its apex and edges, and flattening and rounding its surface. The superior longitudinal muscle runs along the superior surface of the tongue under the mucous membrane, and elevates, assists in retraction of, or deviates the tip of the tongue. It originates near the epiglottis, the hyoid bone, from the median fibrous septum. The inferior longitudinal muscle lines the sides of the tongue, and is joined to the styloglossus muscle. The verticalis muscle is located in the middle of the tongue, and joins the superior and inferior longitudinal muscles. The transversus muscle divides the tongue at the middle, and is attached to the mucous membranes that run along the sides.

2. The muscle that . . . . . the tongue
-Retraction, elevation of posterior third
-Shape changes
The Genioglossus mus protrudes the tongue. Remember that contraction of the right genioglossus muscle (for example) points the tip of the tongue to the patient’s left. The Styloglossus muscle retracts the tongue upward and backward. Also the Palatoglossus muscle retracts the tongue upward and backward. The Hyoglossus muscle depresses the tongue.

The Levator veli palatini muscle elevates the soft palate during swallowing. The Longitudinal, tranverse and vertical muscles of the tongue. They help to change the shape of the tongue.

3. Muscle of pharyngeal wall.
The pharyngeal wall is formed by skeletal muscles and by fascia. Gaps between the muscles are reinforced by the fascia and provide routes for structures to pass through the wall. The muscles of the pharynx are organized into two groups based on the orientation of muscle fibers. The constrictor muscles have fibers oriented in a circular direction relative to the pharyngeal wall, whereas the longitudinal muscles have fibers oriented vertically. The three constrictor muscles on each side are major contributors to the structure of the pharyngeal wall   and their names indicate their position—superior, middle, and inferior constrictor muscles. Posteriorly, the muscles from each side are joined together by the pharyngeal raphe. Anteriorly, these muscles attach to bones and ligaments related to the lateral margins of the nasal and oral cavities and the larynx. The constrictor muscles overlap each other in a fashion resembling the walls of three flower pots stacked one on the other. The inferior constrictors overlap the lower margins of the middle constrictors and, in the same way, the middle constrictors overlap the superior constrictors. Collectively, the muscles constrict or narrow the pharyngeal cavity. When the constrictor muscles contract sequentially from top...
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