Summary Report

Topics: Video game, Video game controversy, Media violence research Pages: 7 (2329 words) Published: August 30, 2013
Schulzke, M. 2010, ‘Defending the morality of violent video games’ Ethics and Information Technology Vol. 12 Issue 2, pp. 127-138 Schulzke’s essay argues that certain theoretical and empirical criticisms against violent video games are misguided, lack evidence and support rendering them ineffective. He claims that video games are defensible from perspective of philosophical theories such as Kantian, Aristotelian and utilitarian (p.127). The author argues that in a philosophical perspective we need to focus on what occurs within the game such as actions and choices that a player chooses to take (p.136), whether this would be harming and/or killing an avatar within a game. He points out that as long as we treat each other with respect and do not intend to psychologically harm and mislead players to a non-consensual fight we are allowed to harm and kill avatars in game as they are superficial analogues to humans and merely inanimate objects (p.128-129). Schulzke identifies that video games creates a training ground for players to practice and learn virtue by creating a moral dilemma scenario through simulations where a player has a choice to do good or evil (p.130). The author continues to emphasise that on utilitarian grounds that video games provides billions of hours to millions of people of fun and entertainment evidently outweighing the potential harm it can cause. In addition to the positives, gaming fuels economy, promotes new technology and it’s documented that it improves visual perception, hand-eye coordination, space cognition and motor skills (p.130-131). Schulzke addressed empirical claims that games have the capacity to train players on how to kill (p.131), to be less empathetic (p.132), and cause to perform violent acts (p.134). He says that these arguments are weak, lack evidence and without basis as actions performed in games requires a high similarity in the real world. Using a mouse to aim and shoot is completely different from holding a gun (p.132). Furthermore, crime rates decreased since 1992 in which games are most violent. Finally, FBI investigation reveals that the Columbine shooting was not the cause of two teenagers playing a game called Doom (p.134). The author disagrees with censorship and heavy regulation regarding the content of a game. He says that violence depends on how a player chooses to act in the game. By regulating video games jeopardises basic liberties and the opponents claims are misleading and lack consistency. If this was the case competitive sports should be banned as they are more dangerous than video games (p.135-136). Schulzke expressed a strong and defensible argument supported with a range of academic sources. He acknowledges that playing violent games has consequences but until the negatives outweighs the positives and games become so sophisticated that the accusations made are supported and proven the debate over the moral status of video games is far from over (p.136-137). Laxmisha, R & Gao,Y. 2009, ‘Future Perspective on Next Generation e-Sports Infrastructure and Exploring Their Benefits’ International Journal of Sports Science and Engineering Vol. 3 Issue 1, pp.027 – 033 Laxmisha and Gao’s article explores future perspective on e-Sports infrastructure and potential future benefits in the field of education, training, learning and physical activities. She outlines technical factors that influence e-Sports and technical developments needed for the future of the gaming industry (p.27) The authors’ states that the growth of e-sports relies on the advancement in broadband internet and connectivity thus leading to the rise of networked games such as FPS and MMO and the creation of in-game advertising. Furthermore, this created an avenue for professional gaming and dedicated TV channels allowing pro-gamers to receive a salary and a fan base. They claim that in Korea the e-sports industry is promising as pro-gamers are treated like celebrities competing in arenas in front...
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