VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS STUDY GUIDE EXAM I
1. What are the 3 fundamentals of healthy sex?
Consent, Mutuality and Respect
2. What is the Latin meaning for the word "rape"? Explain how this impacted rape laws and societal responses historically and presently. “Rape” comes from Latin word “rapere” which means “to seize property” Historically, rape law was designed to regulate “competing male interests in controlling sexual access to females, rather than protecting women’s interest in controlling their own bodies and sexaulity” 3. What are the historical eras in rape laws? What are some of the important components of them? Where did the saying “cut off your nose to spite your face” originate? Law of Retaliation: “eye for an eye” (Lex Talionis)
Hammarubi’s Code: 1st written code of laws in human history “Cut of your nose to spite your face”: self mutilation of nuns; 12th century; men wouldn’t have sex with them because they appeared ugly; could continue to preserve their marriage to Jesus; surviving sexual assault was a “fate worse than death” 4. What were the limitations of both legal and research definitions of rape even in the 1970s? What sexual abuses were most commonly left out? English Common Law: “Carnal knowledge of a woman forcibly and against her will” had 3 elements: Intercourse, force, lack of consent
Reforms from the 1970s Feminist Movement:
The partial abolition of the marital rape exemption; the increased emphasis on the non-consent of the victim (rather than the use of force by the attacker) left out: forced by attacker
5. What US agency changed its longstanding definition of rape in 2012? Does the new definition broaden or narrow the definition? Which types of behavior are being added or taken away? U.S Federal Government changed its definition of forcible rape; The types of sexual assault that will be counted in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports expand by Sex/gender: It expanded the definition of victims to include males Types of Sexual Assault: It expanded the definition of victims to include Oral penetration/rapes
6. What is the ordering of various abuses as social problems? What decades did their definitions as “social problems” occur? Non-sexaul child abuse, rape of women by strangers, non-sexual woman battering/DV/IPA, Sexual harassment, sexual abuse of children, date and marital rape, stalking, corporate violence 7. Know the two different continua used to describe types of sexual violations and place rape in the context of consensual sex. How do they compare and contrast? See page 6 of first packet of notes (Belknap’s Rape Continuum and Bart & O’Brien’s Sex/Rape Continuum) Coercion vs. Force
Consensual Sex, Altruistic Sex (have to do, don’t want to), Compliant Sx (consequences if they don’t have sex), Rape 8. How is “violence” encompassed in “abuse”? See Page 5 of first packet of notes: Violence is only a small part of abuse-->other forms of abuse that can be just as impacting 9. What did Angela Davis find regarding the history of lynching and rape? The “Myth of the Black Rapist”
Only 3 white men were ever tried, convicted and executed although there were 10,000 lynchingsMythical justifications/explanations to gain public support: To deter Black masses from rising in revolt
To prevent Black supremacy over whites
To punish Black men for raping white women
10. What did Mary Odem find in terms of the history of "age of consent" (statutory rape) laws? Who was active in reform, what were they trying to reform, what were the results of the reform? U.S. 1885-1920: White middle-class women reformers trying to change statutory rape age from 10-12(most) to 18 Black, middle-class women’s clubs also concerned about issue, but additionally of Black men being targeted 12. What does “agency” have to do with examining the victimization of women/girls? Why are feminists concerned with this? -can’t find this yet
13. What are...
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