Study Guide

Topics: Marketing, Marketing research, Consumer behaviour Pages: 17 (3630 words) Published: May 26, 2014
Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism
Kotler et al.

9 781292 020037


ISBN 978-1-29202-003-7

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism
Kotler Bowen Make
Sixth Edition

Pearson Education Limited
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Essex CM20 2JE
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© Pearson Education Limited 2014
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.

ISBN 10: 1-292-02003-2
ISBN 13: 978-1-292-02003-7

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Printed in the United States of America

Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior

Marketing Highlight


Unique Aspects of Hospitality and Travel Consumers

Valarie Zeithaml, a marketing consultant, published a
classic article describing how the consumer evaluation process differs between goods and services. Persons purchasing hospitality and travel services rely more on information from personal sources. When looking for a good restaurant, people ask friends or people familiar with the

town, such as front-desk employees or the concierge.
Restaurants should attempt to affect positively those persons whom potential customers may contact. In larger cities there is a concierge association. Smart restaurateurs seek to host this club, letting their members experience the restaurants.

Postpurchase evaluation of services is important. The intangibility of services makes it difficult to judge the service beforehand. Consumers may seek advice from friends but
use the information they receive from actually purchasing
service to evaluate it. The first-time customer is on a trial basis. If the hotel or restaurant satisfies the customers, they will come back.
When purchasing hospitality and travel products, customers often use price as an indication of quality. A business executive who has been under a lot of pressure decides to
take a three-day vacation now that the project is complete.
She wants luxury accommodations and good food service.
She is prepared to pay $175 a night for the room. She calls
a hotel that offers a special rate of $85. This hotel may be able to satisfy her needs and has simply dropped its rate to encourage business. In this case, the hotel has dropped its
rate too low to attract this customer. Because she has never visited the hotel, she will perceive that the hotel is below her standard. Similarly, a person who enjoys fresh seafood and

sees grilled red snapper on the menu for $7.99 will assume
that it must be a low-quality frozen product because fresh
domestic fish usually costs at least twice as much. When
using price to create demand, care must be taken to ensure
that one does not create the wrong consumer perceptions
about the product’s quality.
When customers purchase hospitality and travel products, they often perceive some risk in the purchase. If customers want to impress friends or business associates, they usually take them to a restaurant they have visited previously. Customers tend to be loyal to restaurants and hotels that have met their needs. A meeting planner is reluctant to change hotels if the hotel has been doing a good job.

Customers of hospitality and travel products...

References: Focusing on Emotional Outcomes,“ The Center for
Hospitality Research, Cornell University, 2011.
2. See (accessed September 5, 2011); JaneMichele Clark, “What Women Business Travellers
Expect As Hotel Guests,” 2010, http://EzineArticles.
com/?expert=Jane-Michele_Clark (accessed September 5, 2011); Judi Brownell, “Creating Value for
Women Traveler: Focusing on Emotional Outcomes,”
The Center for Hospitality Research, Cornell University,
2011; Corinna Kretschimar-Joehnk, “What Women
Want from Hotel Design,” June 2010, from http:// (accessed September 5, 2011); Paul Burnham Finney, “Women-Friendly Hotel Floors Return, with Modern Twists,” New York Times (August
5, 2008); Pauline Loong, “What Women Want and
Why,” Asiamoney (March 2004): 39+; “Safety Is Preferred, Security Is Preferred,” Business Travel News
(January 2004): 12; Molly Cahill (February 2000),
“Expecting Nearly Half of Business Travelers to
html (accessed October 1, 2001); Christine CallowayHolt (2001), “The Nob Hill Lambourne Creates ‘Rebalancing Services’ for Professional Women Travelers,”
Jun01_Lambourne.html (accessed October 1, 2001);
Suzanne Crampton and Jitendra Mishra, “Women
(accessed April 6, 2000); Ruth Hill, “Women Road Warriors,” HSMAI Marketing Review (Winter 2000/2001);
Customers,” (accessed October 24, 2001); Regina McGee, “What Do Women
Travelers Really Want?” Successful Meetings, 37, no.
9 (1988): 54–56; Harry Nobles and Cheryl Thompson,
“Female Business Travelers’ Expectations,” http://www (accessed October 24, 2001).
3. GDP figures from The World Facts Book (March 12,
4. See U.S. "Hispanic Spending Growth Dwarfs the General Market," PRNewswire (January 5, 2010); and
Noreen O 'Leary, "Latin Flavor," Next (November 2,
5. Jonathan Birchall, "Walmart Focuses on Smaller Format," Financial Times (October 19, 2009): 18; and
"Burger King Wraps Up Its Annual FUTBOL KINGDOM
National Tour with Scores of Success," BusinessWire
(December 10, 2009).
6. (accessed August 29, 2011).
7. See Todd Wasserman, “Report Shows Shifting American Population,” Brandweek (January 11, 2000): 6:
in Numbers, Buying Power” (January 26, 2010), www.
Mark Dolliver, "How to Reach Affluent African Americans,"
Adweek (February 2, 2010),
content_display/news/strategy/e3i8decb5ca03594f57dadfad445ed35524; and U.S. Census Bureau reports, (accessed February 2010).
8. (accessed August 29,
2010). (accessed October 2010).
13, 2009): 1, 29–30.
(January 22, 1990): D1, D6. See also Lufthansa’s
Business Travel Guide/Europe; Sergey Frank, “Global
Services Marketing (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000);
and Kathryn Frazer Winsted, “The Service Experience in Two Cultures,” Journal of Retailing, 73, no
(1997): 337–360.
22. Linda Abu-Shalback Zid, “What’s for Dinner,” Marketing Management (September/October 2004): 6; David
Evans and Olivia Toth, “Parents Buy, But Kids Rule,”
Media Asia (November 14, 2003): 22+.
11. “Briefcase—It’s Fast and It’s Kosher,” Houston Chronicle (April 25, 1997): 4C.
12. “Yum! Brands, Inc in China,” China Business Review
(July–August 2004): 19; “Yum! Brands: Tasty Profits,”
Business Custom Wire, October 8, 2004, EBSCOhost,
Accession Number CX2004282X7447.
13. See Richard P. Coleman, “The Continuing Significance
of Social Class to Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Research (December 1983): 264–280; Leon G
and Leslie Lazar Kanuk, Consumer Behavior (6th ed.)
(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), p
14. Arun Sudhaman, “Heineken Takes Pulse to Win HK
Consumers,” Media Asia (June 18, 2004): 12; Becky
Ebenkamp, “Under the Influence,” Brandweek (August 9, 2004): 18; Becky Ebenkamp, “Keeping Up
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