Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism
Kotler et al.
9 781292 020037
Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism
Kotler Bowen Make
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ISBN 10: 1-292-02003-2
ISBN 13: 978-1-292-02003-7
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Printed in the United States of America
Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior
Unique Aspects of Hospitality and Travel Consumers
Valarie Zeithaml, a marketing consultant, published a
classic article describing how the consumer evaluation process differs between goods and services. Persons purchasing hospitality and travel services rely more on information from personal sources. When looking for a good restaurant, people ask friends or people familiar with the
town, such as front-desk employees or the concierge.
Restaurants should attempt to affect positively those persons whom potential customers may contact. In larger cities there is a concierge association. Smart restaurateurs seek to host this club, letting their members experience the restaurants.
Postpurchase evaluation of services is important. The intangibility of services makes it difficult to judge the service beforehand. Consumers may seek advice from friends but
use the information they receive from actually purchasing
service to evaluate it. The first-time customer is on a trial basis. If the hotel or restaurant satisfies the customers, they will come back.
When purchasing hospitality and travel products, customers often use price as an indication of quality. A business executive who has been under a lot of pressure decides to
take a three-day vacation now that the project is complete.
She wants luxury accommodations and good food service.
She is prepared to pay $175 a night for the room. She calls
a hotel that offers a special rate of $85. This hotel may be able to satisfy her needs and has simply dropped its rate to encourage business. In this case, the hotel has dropped its
rate too low to attract this customer. Because she has never visited the hotel, she will perceive that the hotel is below her standard. Similarly, a person who enjoys fresh seafood and
sees grilled red snapper on the menu for $7.99 will assume
that it must be a low-quality frozen product because fresh
domestic fish usually costs at least twice as much. When
using price to create demand, care must be taken to ensure
that one does not create the wrong consumer perceptions
about the product’s quality.
When customers purchase hospitality and travel products, they often perceive some risk in the purchase. If customers want to impress friends or business associates, they usually take them to a restaurant they have visited previously. Customers tend to be loyal to restaurants and hotels that have met their needs. A meeting planner is reluctant to change hotels if the hotel has been doing a good job.
Customers of hospitality and travel products...
References: Focusing on Emotional Outcomes,“ The Center for
Hospitality Research, Cornell University, 2011.
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Noreen O 'Leary, "Latin Flavor," Next (November 2,
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in Numbers, Buying Power” (January 26, 2010), www.
Mark Dolliver, "How to Reach Affluent African Americans,"
Adweek (February 2, 2010), www.adweek.com/aw/
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www.census.gov (accessed October 2010).
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(January 22, 1990): D1, D6. See also Lufthansa’s
Business Travel Guide/Europe; Sergey Frank, “Global
Services Marketing (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000);
and Kathryn Frazer Winsted, “The Service Experience in Two Cultures,” Journal of Retailing, 73, no
22. Linda Abu-Shalback Zid, “What’s for Dinner,” Marketing Management (September/October 2004): 6; David
Evans and Olivia Toth, “Parents Buy, But Kids Rule,”
Media Asia (November 14, 2003): 22+.
11. “Briefcase—It’s Fast and It’s Kosher,” Houston Chronicle (April 25, 1997): 4C.
12. “Yum! Brands, Inc in China,” China Business Review
(July–August 2004): 19; “Yum! Brands: Tasty Profits,”
Business Custom Wire, October 8, 2004, EBSCOhost,
Accession Number CX2004282X7447.
13. See Richard P. Coleman, “The Continuing Significance
of Social Class to Marketing,” Journal of Consumer Research (December 1983): 264–280; Leon G
and Leslie Lazar Kanuk, Consumer Behavior (6th ed.)
(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997), p
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Consumers,” Media Asia (June 18, 2004): 12; Becky
Ebenkamp, “Under the Influence,” Brandweek (August 9, 2004): 18; Becky Ebenkamp, “Keeping Up
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