Sociology Exam 2
Know sequence of steps in research process:
Step 1: Select a Topic
Step 2: Defining the Problem
Step 3: Reviewing the Literature
Step 4: Formulating a Hypothesis
Step 5: Choosing a Research Method/Design
Step 6: Collecting the Data
Step 7: Analyzing the Results
Step 8: Sharing the Results (Replicating)
Hypothesis – A statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another – An educated guess. Operational definition – The way researchers measure a variable. Cantwell describes the specifics of the variable. Such as smokers, what do they smoke? Research method/design and know the different designs – There are 7 different designs to choose from. 1. Survey – Collection of Data by having people answer a series of questions. 2. Participant Observation – Research setting and Observing Setting. 3. Case Study – Analysis of a single event.
4. Secondary Analysis – Analysis of data that has been collected by other researchers. 5. Documents – Recorded Sources.
6. Experiments – Use of control and experimental groups, and independent and dependent variables that will test causation. 7. Unobstructed Measures – Ways of observing people so that they do not know they are being observed and studied.
Reliability – Apart of step 6 of the research process, collecting the data, reliability is the extent to which research produces consistent and reliable results when replicated. Replication - Apart of step 8 of the research process, sharing the results, it is vital to replicate the experiment performed to ensure reliability or accuracy of results. Therefore other scientist can know perform your experiment and see if they get the same results proving the accuracy of the conducted study. Random sample – A sample in which everyone in the target population has a chance of being selected in the study. Types of questions in a survey
Neutral questions – Unbiased Questions
Questionnaire – A list of questions to ask respondents; self-administered questionnaire. 3.
Interview Questions – Direct questioning of respondent with biased interviewer; Structured (Close-ended Questions – yes or no) Vs. Unstructured (Open-ended Questions)
Experimental group – Group of subjects in an experiment that are exposed to the independent variable. Control group – Subjects not exposed to the independent variable. Independent variable – Factor in an experiment that causes change in the other variable, or dependent variable. Dependent variable – Factor in an experiment that is changed by a variable, the independent variable. Know at least 2 elements of ethics
Forbids falsification of results
Subjects should be informed
Subjects should never be harmed
Protect the anonymity of subjects
Researchers should not misrepresent themselves.
Social change – The alteration of society and culture over time. Evolutionary theory of social change –
Unilinear – assumes all society follows the same route, evolving from simpler to much more complex forms. There are 3 stages to this theory, savagery, barbarism, and civilization. ·
Multilinear – different routes lead to the same stage of development. Natural cycles theory of change – “Civilizations are like organisms,” they are born, enjoy and exuberant youth, come to maturity, decline as they reach an old age, and die. Technology - Changes in Social Organization, Changes how people organize themselves, Changes in Ideology, Capitalism vs. socialism, Changes in Conspicuous Consumption, Material culture, Changes in Social Relationships, Families, Dating. “Just as Technology stimulates social change, social change stimulates technology.” Marx’s view of social change - Karl Marx accepted the evolutionary argument that societies develop along a specific direction, Marx noted that history proceeds in stages in which the rich always exploit the poor and weak as a class of people. Only by...
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