Sociology 1st Test
C. Wright Mills- Power. Mills was concerned with the responsibilities of intellectuals in post-World War II society, and advocated public and political engagement over uninterested observation. Mills biographer Daniel Geary writes that his writings had a "particularly significant impact on New Left social movements of the 1960s. In fact, Mills popularized the term "New Left" in the U.S. in a 1960 open letter, Letter to the New Left. Social Darwinism- not any single well defined concept, but various ideologies that seek to apply biological concepts associated with Darwinism or other evolutionary theories to sociology, economics and politics, often with the assumption that conflict between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones. Marx- Conflict. Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (such as the wealthy vs. the poor) and that the more powerful groups use their power in order to exploit groups with less power. two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The ruling class derives its power from its ownership and control of the forces of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. As a result there is a basic conflict of interest between the two classes. Durkheim- Social integration, mechanical/organic solidarity. Durkheim believed that society exterted a powerful force on individuals. According to Durkheim, peoples norms, beliefs, and values , make up a collective consciousness, or way of understanding or seeing the world. The collective consciousness binds individuals and creates social integration. Simpler societies are based on mechanical solidarity, in which self sufficient people are connected to others by close personal ties. Modern societies are based upon organic solidarity, in which people are connected by their reliance on others in the division of labor. Weber- verstehen, protestant ethic. Weber began his studies of the subject in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he argued that the redefinition of the connection between work and piety in Protestantism and especially in ascetic Protestant denominations, particularly Calvinism, shifted human effort towards rational efforts aimed at achieving economic gain. In Protestant religion, Christian piety towards God was expressed through one's secular vocation (secularisation of calling). The rational roots of this doctrine, he argued, soon grew incompatible with and larger than the religious and so the latter were eventually discarded. DuBois- insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the talented tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership. Racism was the main target of Dubois’s polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment. Symbolic Interactionism- major sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the discipline. It is particularly important in micro sociology and social psychology. George Mead and Herbert Blumer Merton’s functions- Manifest functions and dysfunctions are conscious and deliberate, the latent ones the unconscious and unintended. While functions are intended (manifest) or unintended (latent), and have a positive effect on society, dysfunctions are unintended or unrecognized (latent) and have a negative effect on society. Functionalism- Micro and Macro. Micro-level focuses on individuals and their interactions. For example the relationship between adult children and their parents, or the effect of negative attitudes on older people. Macro-level focuses more upon social structure, social processes and...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document