Topics: Sociology, Culture, Social class Pages: 20 (4922 words) Published: June 17, 2014
SOCO 1001A
Chapter 1
Sociological Imagination – C. Wright Mills : Understanding the relationship between social factors and people’s lives. Understanding the true origin of problems that we face. What is the sociological perspective?

1.A way of looking at the world
2.Relies on the scientific method – research
3.Encourages people to question why society is set up the way it is 4.Emphasizes social diversity 
What are the benefits of using the sociological perspective? Helps us assess the truth of “commonsense”
Helps us assess opportunities and constraints in our own lives and the lives of others Empowers us to effectively participate in society
Helps us live in a diverse world
Ecological Fallacy: Sociologists talk about patterns in collectives or groups. Because an individual is a member of a particular group, that person does not necessarily exhibit all traits that characterize the group as a whole Socialization: Life-long process through which we learn our culture, develop a sense of self, and become functioning members of a society Social Conflict : Dominant group determines what constitutes mainstream culture  Disadvantaged/oppressed groups buy into dominant culture. Ex. Individualism Social Learning Theory : Contrasts with psychoanalytic theories by focusing on observable behaviors Social Institutions : A predictable, established way to provide for one or more of society’s basic needs. Ex: Education, health care, political, economic, family  4 Social Changes :

The Industrial Revolution
The Growth of Cities
Political Change
Rapid Expansion of Colonialism
2 different ways of explaining social relationships:
Theological – Using religion to explain social structure and group differences Science – Scientific laws can explain human behavior and social structure  Interdependence: Everything is related, so a change in one aspect of society necessarily changes everything else in that society Manifest Functions : Intended function of some aspect of society. Example: Prisons, education  Latent Functions : Unintended function of some aspect of society.Example: Prisons, childcare The 5 Sociological Paradigms

1. Structural Functional Approach: In a stable society, change would not occur frequently. Views change as a sign that things are not functioning properly. Causes of change are often viewed as dysfunctions because they prevent stability. Macro-social approach

Focuses on large groups, whole societies
Emphasizes stability, solidarity 
Organic Analogy – Society is like a body

2. Conflict Theory: Macro-social approach. The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it. Explicitly focuses on inequality and differences in power. Argues that all people are equal. Differences exist because of unequal opportunities. Conflict is inevitable – there will always be clashes over limited resources. Change is inevitable – predicted revolution.

3. Symbolic Interaction Theory: Micro-social approach.Focuses on small group interactions Symbolic Interaction Approach:
Social Construction
We create our world through interactions
There is no one objective reality when it comes to how a society should function Thus, change is quite possible

4. The Feminist Perspective:
Developed out of the critique that sociological research was androcentric Like conflict theory, emphasizes power, inequality and the need for change Not just concerned about gender biases
Explicitly emphasize how race, class, gender, and sexuality impact behavior and life experience Also try to give voice to underprivileged groups
Chapter 3- Culture:
androcentric : Broad generalizations about all of society would be made based on research conducted only on white males culture : Consists of beliefs, values, behaviors and material objects that together form a people’s way of life What is the difference between material and non-material culture? Material culture in tangible....
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