Soc 1 Final Review

Topics: Sociology, Social class, Indentured servant Pages: 7 (2330 words) Published: May 5, 2013
RACE Definitions/Concepts Racial Formation: idea of how race is created. Race: socially constructed categorization process that describes phenotype, not genotype. Ethnicity: nationality/origin. Whiteness: ideology tied to social status, provides privilege for those labeled white; process by which non-white “other” created for benefit of whites. Racism: about structural advantages/disadvantages placed on people based on perceptions of their race. Can be individual or institutional. Covert: not hiring someone due to skin color. Overt: designated drinking fountains/bathrooms. Ex: Federal Housing Agency in ‘50s, Freddie May/Freddie Mac loans through GI Bill, media/local community demonizes young black men. Larger system that influences individual actions (structure vs agency). Privilege: special advantage/benefit. Can be based on: race, gender, ethnicity, class, ability, sexual orientation, religion. Race as a social construction: changes based on political, economic, cultural, and historical events. No taxonomic significance; rely on “folk” taxonomy: unscientific notion that you can identify someone’s raced based on stereotypical physical features. Ex. Sammy Sosa: black in the US, mulatto (mixed) in Dom Rep, white in Haiti, Taino (indig.) in Puerto Rico. Ex. One Drop Rule: created b/c white slaveowners had children w/ their slaves, wanted them to be slaves (economic purpose). How race impacts people’s outcomes? 2 examples. Takaki Origin of slavery = class conflict. Uprisings, rebellions solidarity among land/slave owners. How white/white class conflict generated led to institutionalization of slavery and a new racial order: many English settlers came as indentured servants. Freemen enacted legislation to lengthen time of servitude, made it harder for servants to become landowners. “Giddy multitude”: discontented class of indentured servants, slaves, landless freemen (white and black). Bacon’s Rebellion exposed volatility of class tensions, accelerated process. Landowners could no longer depend on white labor (danger to social order). Importing more slaves from Africa = decrease proportion of white indentured servants. How blacks became property: Started off as indentured servants, just like whites. Then, transition began… ? 1661 VA Assembly institutionalized it, requiring blacks to serve for life. 1669 defined a slave as property, part of owner’s “estate”. Increasing need for labor in the South. Intersectionality of race/class? How does gender come into play when it comes to the development of slavery? McIntosh Main argument: White privilege = invisible package of unearned assets (special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools, and blank checks) that I can count on, but about which I was "meant" to remain oblivious. Whites taught to view their lives as morally neutral, normative, average, ideal, benefitting others as allowing “them” to be more like “us.” Many doors open for certain people through no virtues of their own. Many daily experiences that white people take for granted. This article as example of whiteness: “This paper results from a process of coming to see that some of the power that I originally say as attendant on being a human being in the US consisted in unearned advantage and conferred dominance.” How can we resolve this issue? Change in attitude not enough… Tim Wise, White Like Me Main argument: To understand race not just about understanding “minorities”/ people of color, also about “over-privilege.” Black Like Me: in the ‘50s, white guy experiences black perspective for few months and writes about it, white America amazed. Implicit assumption that race = black (not white) issue. Why “under privileged” is problematic: Passive, doesn’t account for anyone doing anything to anyone else that made it this way. Obscures the active component of oppression. Relative term – we don’t recognize overprivilege/overclass, but by def there must be one. GENDER Definitions/Concepts Gender: Socially...
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