Shadows over the Pacific

Topics: Qing Dynasty, Japan, China Pages: 9 (2266 words) Published: August 20, 2013



I. The Decline of the Manchus
A. Opium and Rebellion
1. In 1800, the Qing dynasty was at the height of its power
a. Peace, prosperity, secure borders, cultural accomplishments
b. But peasant unrest, corruption, royal incompetence
c. Population growth, to 400 million by 1900
2. West/Britain frustrated with limitations on trade
a. British desire for Chinese tea created a balance of payments problem
b. Solution was to ship Indian opium to China
c. Commercial profits trumped moral concerns
3. The Opium War (1839-1842)
a. Superiority of British arms and tactics
b. Treaty of Nanjing (1842) opened five coastal ports and granted the British extraterritoriality, China paid an indemnity and ceded Hong Kong to British c. A turning point in Qing decline?

4. The Taiping Rebellion
a. Hong Xiuquan, a Chinese “Christian” (Jesus’ younger brother)
1) Wanted to create a “Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace”
b. Other causes, including peasant unrest and decline in government services
c. Hong captured Nanjing in 1853, but rebellion finally put down in 1864
5. British and French capture Beijing and burn the summer palace
a. Treaty of Tianjin meant more concessions by the Qing
B. Efforts at Reform
1. Self-strengthening: adopt Western technology but maintain Confucian principles and institutions, or “East for Essence, West for Practical Use” a. No representative government or democracy

2. The Climax of Imperialism
a. Spheres of influence established in China
1) Germany seize Shandong province in 1897
b. China was defeated Sino-Japanese War (1894) over control of Korea c. Kang Youwei and Emperor Guangxu launched the One Hundred Days of reform in 1898 1) But conservatives including the emperor’s aunt, the Dowager Empress Cixi, crushed the reform movement

3. Opening the Door
a. John Hay, American Secretary of State, advocated an Open Door policy, which would protect Chinese territorial integrity and open Chinese markets to everyone 1) A positive step that reduced spheres of influence momentum

4. The Boxer Rebellion
a. North China peasant unrest fueled by drought, unemployment, foreign economic activities b. Boxer siege of foreign legations in Beijing was ended by international expedition in 1900

C. The Collapse of the Old Order
1. Cixi authorized reforms in education and in local government, but too little too late
2. The Rise of Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)
a. Formed the Revolutionary Alliance in 1905
1) “Three people’s principles” of nationalism , democracy, and people’s livelihood 2) Three-stage process, beginning with a military takeover and eventually ending with a constitutional democracy

3. The Revolution of 1911, and fall of Qing Dynasty
a. Like the Austro-Hungarian Empire and tsarist Russia, Qing failed to meet the changing challenges of the times
b. Cixi dead, Emperor Puyi was an infant
c. Sun was traveling in the United States
d. Uprising in Wuhan in central China
e. Government called upon General Yuan Shikai, but Yuan changed sides
f. Yuan became president of the new Chinese republic in 1912
g. Chinese middle class too small to implement Sun Yat-sen’s vision II. Chinese Society in Transition
A. Obstacles to Industrialization
1. Chinese economy in transition even before West arrived 2. But traditional methods still held
a. No uniform system of weights and measures, a primitive banking system, few paved roads
3. Population increase reduced size of peasants’ farm plots
4. Confucius mindset...
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