Psych 171 notes (1st exam)
HISTORICAL PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN.
European paintings centuries ago often depicted children as miniature adults. Do these artistic creations indicate that earlier Europeans did not view childhood as a distinct period?
Development. The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the life span. original sin view. Advocated during the Middle Ages, the belief that children were born into the world as evil beings and were basically bad. The goal of child rearing was to provide salvation, to remove sin from the child’s life. tabula rasa view. (17th century)The idea, proposed by John Locke, that children are like a “blank tablet.” innate goodness view. (18th century) The idea, presented by Swiss-born French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that children are inherently good
MODERN STUDY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
* Alfred Binet invented many tasks to assess attention and memory. He used them to study his own daughters, other normal children, children with mental retardation, children who were gifted, and adults. Eventually, he collaborated in the development of the fi rst modern test of intelligence (the Binet test). At about the same time, G. Stanley Hall pioneered the use of questionnaires with large groups of children. * 1920s. many child development research centers were created and their professional staffs began to observe and chart a myriad of behaviors in infants and children. * [Arnold]GESELL’S PHOTOGRAPHIC DOME. Cameras rode on metal tracks at the top of the dome and were moved as needed to record the child’s activities. Others could observe from outside the dome without being seen by the child. argued that certain characteristics of children simply “bloom” with age because of a biological, maturational blueprint. * Evolutionary theory also influenced G. Stanley Hall. Hall (1904) argued that child development follows a natural evolutionary course that can be revealed by child study. He theorized that child development unfolds in stages, with distinct motives and capabilities at each stage.
context The settings, infl uenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors, in which development occurs. culture The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation. cross-cultural studies Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which children’s development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture-specific.
ethnicity A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language. socioeconomic status (SES) Categorization based on a person’s occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
gender The characteristics of people as males and females.
Social policy is a government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES
Biological Processes Biological processes produce changes in an individual’s body. Genes inherited from parents, the development of the brain, height and weight gains, development of motor skills, and the hormonal changes of puberty all reflect the role of biological processes in development. Cognitive Processes Cognitive processes refer to changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language. The tasks of watching a mobile swinging above a crib, putting together a two-word sentence, memorizing a poem, solving a math problem, and imagining what it would be like to be a movie star all involve cognitive processes. Socioemotional Processes involve changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality. An infant’s smile in response to her mother’s touch, a child’s attack on a playmate, another’s development of assertiveness, and an adolescent’s joy at the senior prom all reflects...
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