IGCSE Biology 2012 exam revision notes by Samuel Lees
Section I: Characteristics and classification of living organisms 1. Characteristics of living organisms 2. Classification and diversity of living organisms 2.1 Concept and use of a classificatory system 2.2 Adaptations of organisms to their environment 3. Simple Keys
Section II: Organisation and maintenance of the organism
1. Cell structure and organisation 2. Levels of organisation 3. Size of specimens 4. Movement in and out of cells 4.1 Diffusion 4.2 Active transport 4.3 Osmosis 5. Enzymes 6. Nutrition 6.1 Nutrients 6.2 Plant nutrition 6.2.1 Photosynthesis 6.2.2 Leaf structure 6.2.3 Mineral requirements 6.3 Animal nutrition 6.3.1 Diet 6.3.2 Food supply 6.3.3 Human alimentary canal 6.3.4 Mechanical and physical digestion 6.3.5 Chemical digestion 6.3.6 Absorption 6.3.7 Assimilation 7. Transportation 7.1 Transport in plants 7.1.1 Water uptake 7.1.2 Transpiration 7.1.3 Translocation 7.2 Transport in humans 7.2.1 Heart 7.2.2 Arteries, veins and capillaries 7.2.3 Blood 8. Respiration 8.1 Aerobic respiration 8.2 Anaerobic respiration
8.3 Gas exchange 9. Excretion in humans 10. Coordination and response 10.1 Nervous control in humans 10.2 Hormones 10.3 Tropic responses 10.4 Homeostasis 10.5 Drugs
Section III: Development of the organism and the continuity of life 1. Reproduction 1.1 Asexual reproduction 1.2 Sexual reproduction 1.2.1 Sexual reproduction in plants 1.2.2 Sexual reproduction in humans 1.3 Sex hormones 1.4 Methods of birth control 1.5 Sexually transmissible diseases 2. Growth and development 3. Inheritance 3.1 Chromosome 3.2 Mitosis 3.3 Meiosis 3.4 Monohybrid inheritance 3.5 Variation 3.6 Selection 3.7 Genetic engineering
Section IV: Relationships of organisms with one another and with their environment 1. Energy flow 2. Food chains and food webs 3. Nutrient cycles 4. Population size 5. Human influences on the ecosystem 5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Pollution 5.3 Conservation
Things to note about the formatting: Words in red are words where in the syllabus it says “define aerobic respiration as ...” so I copy pasted the definition, therefore you should probably memorise these definitions. Important vocabulary is normally in bold. I have put all the section and sub-section names in bold and underlined e.g. “1. Characteristics of living things” so that you can find the corresponding section in the syllabus easily. Any information marked with a * is not necessary, but can make other stuff make more sense, or I used it on diagrams where I couldn’t remove a label without ruining the diagram. As far as I can remember, I have written on top of a diagram if you have to know the diagram or the position of the labelled parts etc.
Section I: Characteristics and classification of living organisms 1. Characteristics of living organisms Movement: an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position, place, or aspect Respiration: the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy Sensitivity: the ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses Growth: a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both Reproduction: the processes that make more of the same kind of organism Excretion: removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements Nutrition: taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them 2. Classification and diversity of living organisms 2.1 Concept and use of a classificatory system binomial system: a system of naming species in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus (starting with a capitol letter) and species (starting...
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