Research Methods

Topics: Validity, Scientific method, Experiment Pages: 0 (2363 words) Published: September 9, 2014
Glossary Babbie

Chapter 1 Human Inquiry and Science

epistemology
Science of knowing; systems of knowing
methodology
Science of finding out; procedures for scientific investigation Agreement reality
Things we “know” as part of our culture; both assists and hinders us (tradition, authority) Errors in inquiry
- Inaccurate observations
- overgeneralization (few similar events –> evidence of pattern?) - selective observation (focus on things that fit our idea, ignoring the rest) - illogical reasoning (Glückssträhne muss Pechsträhne folgen?) replication

Repeating a study to test and confirm/question earlier ones
Premodern view
Ppl see things as they really are
Modern view
Diversity in beliefs, no one is absolute
Postmodern view
The only things we know are those we see (no “truth”)
theory
Systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life; describe relationships we might logically expect between variables Independent variable
Cause
Dependent variable
Effect, depending on another
Idiographic explanation
Idio = unique; full explanation; limited to a single case
Nomothetic explanation
Explains a class of situations using only one/a few explanatory factors; partial explanation induction
From specific to general, from observation to pattern
deduction
From general to specific, from pattern to observation (“All x are like..., so...”) Wheel of science (simple)
Theories → Hypotheses → Observations → Empirical Generalizations deduction → induction

Chapter 2 Paradigms, Theory and Social Research

paradigm
Model or frame of reference through which to observe and understand (Satz von Vorgehensweisen) macrotheory
Aimed at understanding (interactions among) whole societies (e.g. Marx) microtheory
Aimed at understanding social life at the level if individuals and small groups and their interactions positivism
Comte, grounded on the rational...
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