Research methodology

Topics: Scientific method, Measurement, Research Pages: 6 (755 words) Published: December 2, 2013
Practical Research
Planning and Design

Tenth Edition

Paul D. Leedy
Jeanne Ellis Ormrod

© 2013, 2010, 2005, 2001, 1997
Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 4
Planning Your Research Project

Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-3

Research Design






Is a general strategy for solving a
research problem
Provides the overall structure for the
procedures the researcher follows, the
data the researcher collects, and the
data analyses the researcher conducts
Research Design – Research planning

Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-4

Categories of Research Problems
• People: problems related to children, adults, families, communities, cultural groups, employees, etc.

• Things: problems related to animal and vegetable life, viruses and bacteria, inanimate objects, matter, stars, galaxies, etc.
• Records: problems related to newspapers, journals, letters, minutes, legal documents, census reports, etc.
• Thoughts & Ideas: problems related to concepts, theories, perceptions, opinions, beliefs, issues, etc.

• Dynamics & Energy: problems related to human interactions, metabolism, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, etc.

Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-5

Research Planning v. Research Methodology
• Research Planning: the general approach to planning a
research study; may be similar across disciplines.
• Research Methodology: the techniques one uses to collect and analyze data; may be specific to a particular
academic discipline.

Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-6

General Criteria for a Research Project
• Universality: the research project should be one that might be carried out by any competent person. The researcher is a catalyst who collects, organizes, and reports what the collected data seem to indicate.

• Replication: the research should be repeatable; any other competent person should be able to take the problem and, collecting data under the same circumstances and within the same parameters you have used, achieve results comparable to yours.

• Control: the researcher must isolate, or control, factors that are central to the research problem; control is important for replication and consistency within the research design.
• Measurement: the data should be able to be measured in some way. Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-7

The Nature and Role of Data in Research
• Data are not absolute reality but manifestations of reality. (see table 4.2)
• Data are transient and ever changing.

• Data is primary or secondary. (see example page 78)
▪ Primary data is the layer closest to the truth.
▪ Secondary data are derived, not from the truth, but from primary data.

• Data must meet certain criteria to be admitted to study; any data not meeting the criteria are excluded from the study.

Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-8

Planning for Data Collection
Answers to the following questions will
bring the process into focus.
1.
2.

3.
4.

What data are needed?
Where are the data located?
How will the data be obtained?
How will the data be interpreted?

Leedy & Ormrod
Practical Research: Planning and Design, 10e
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4-9

Identifying Appropriate Measurement
Instruments
• We pin down data by measuring it in some way.
• Measurement instruments provide a basis on which the entire research effort rests.

• A research effort employing faulty measurement tools is of little...
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