III – BS Psych Stuents
Prof. Cora E. Lim
CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH ETHICS
* The Researcher’s foremost concern in recruiting and using subjects is treating them ethically and responsibly * Research that is harmful to participants is undesirable even though it may increase wisdom * A researcher is legally responsible for what happens to research participants * To protect the subjects of psychological research, the federal government has formulated legal and ethical guidelines. The IRB (Institutional Review Board)
* Under the federal law (Title 45, Section 46.106[b]), Each institution that accepts research funding from the Department of Health and the Human services is required to set up a review committee called IRB, to evaluate proposed studies before they are conducted. * The IRB’s Primary duty is to ensure that the safety of research participants is adequately protected * Its First task is to decide whether the proposed study puts the subjects at risk. A subject at risk is one who is more likely to be harmed in some way by participating in the research. Risk/ Benefit analysis
* The IRB must determine whether any risks to individual are outweighed by potential benefits or the importance of the knowledge to be gained * Understanding of research design is critical to such analysis, and at least some members of a review board must be skilled in research methods * Research that is improperly designed has few benefits.
Psychologist Robert Rosenthal (1994) has given three reasons why poorly designed research can be unethical: 1. Students’, Teachers’, and Administrators’ time will be taken from potentially more beneficial educational experiences 2. Poorly designed research can lead to unwarranted and inaccurate conclusions that may be damaging to the society that directly or indirectly pays for the research. 3. Allocating time and money to poor quality science will keep those finite resources from better-quality science.
* Another very important task of an IRB is to safeguard the rights of individuals by making certain that each subject at risk gives informed consent to participate * Informed consent means that the subject agrees to participate after having been fully informed about the nature of the study * Consent should be obtained in writing, and subjects should receive a copy to keep * Researchers need to obtain consent from a parent or legal guardian whenever the subject is a Minor or is Cognitively impaired * The assent or agreement of minor children ages 7 and above is usually a requirement of their participation ASPECTS OF INFORMED CONSENT
1. Individuals must give their consent freely, without the use of force, duress, or coercion. 2. They must be free to drop out the experiment at any time 3. Researchers must give subjects a full explanation of the procedures to be followed and offer to answer any questions about them. 4. Researchers must make clear the potential risks and benefits of the experiment. 5. Researchers must provide assurance that all data will remain private and confidential. 6. Subjects may not be asked to release the researchers (or study sponsors, institutions, or other agents) from liability or to waive their legal rights in the case of injury (45CFR 46.115) The Consent form provides subjects with information relevant to their participation such as: the nature of the experiment, an overview of the procedures that will occur, how long it will take, the potential risks and benefits, and what they will be required to do. It needs to be written in clear, understandable language at the appropriate reading level for participants. Researchers also need to verbally reinforce the information that is important for subjects. The specific hypothesis of the...
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