Write a reflective essay of 3,000 words on the topic below using course material, published material and work based material. Title: “Critical Evaluation of Three Models of Counselling and Egan’s Model” Topic:
From the counseling models, contained in the module, identify three main theoretical models in counseling and Egan’s integrative model. Consider and critically analyse which model is most relevant to your client base and justify its use by example. Provide an In depth rationale for your choice of models.
The task of this essay is to choose and critically evaluate three models of counselling and Egan’s Integrative model. In my selection, I will give a definition of each theory, mentioning the major contributors in that field. Additionally, I will evaluate each of the models demonstrating understanding of each. Lastly, I will consider Egan’s integrative model, highlighting the importance of each stage in the process of helping a client. Having evaluated three theoretical models and Egan’s integrative model, I will consider which would be of most relevance to me in my previous career as a graphic/web designer. I will justify that choice giving an example of where this new knowledge of counselling models would be advantageous in a designer/client situation. I will conclude my essay with reflective learning and discuss why I have selected one particular model as the most appropriate. Finally, I will summarise how the counselling models with Egan’s integrative model may have helped modify my approach to working in the graphic/web design industry and how I can develop this knowledge going forward in counsellor/client relationships. I have chosen to look at the following three theoretical models: •
Person Centred (Humanistic)
Behaviourist theory founded by J.B. Watson is defined as Watson, J.B. (2009, p.ix) “Behaviourist psychology has as its goal to be able, given the stimulus, to predict the response or, seeing the reaction to identify the stimulus that called out the reaction” Watson believed behaviours can be measured, trained and changed. Watson was influenced by Ivan Pavlov, considered the founding father of behavioural science. Behaviourists explain behaviour in terms of the stimuli that obtain it and the events that caused people to learn to respond to the stimulus that way. Behaviourists use two processes to explain how people learn: classical conditioning and operant conditioning Classical conditioning: Developed by Pavlov, can be defined as Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2007), “A type of learning which based on the association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus which does elicit the response”. Association is key in classical conditioning, meaning if two stimuli are repeatedly experienced together, they will become associated. Both Watson and Pavlov experimented with stimulus and response ideas. Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments with dogs are world renowned. These eliminated any stimulus outside his control as he studied the response mechanisms of dogs related to certain sounds associated with food. He noted after time dogs salivated as if food was present when sound was heard. This is highlighted in the figure below.
Pavlov concluded that behaviours are learned from a response to external and internal stimulus. Operant conditioning: B.F. Skinners findings went beyond the stimulus and response ideas of his peers by looking to what follows the response. People learn new behaviours through the consequences of their actions. If behaviour is followed by reinforcement then likelihood of that behaviour being repeated increases (behaviour is strengthened). A consequence can be reinforcing in two ways: either the person gets something good (positive reinforcement) or they avoid something bad (negative reinforcement). Equally, if a behaviour is followed by punishment, then the likelihood of...
References: Egan, Gerard (2010, 2007) Introduction to helping, in, The Skilled Helper a Problem-Management and Opportunity-Development Approach to Helping. 9thEd. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole. Pp 7-10
Mearns, Dave. Thorne, Brian (2007) Empathy, in, Person-Centred Counselling in Action. 3rdEd. London: Sage Publications Ltd. Pp 67
Nelson Jones, Richard (2006) Creating Counselling and Therapy Approaches, in, Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy
Nelson Jones, Richard (2006) Creating Counselling and Therapy Approaches, in, Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy. 4th ed. London: Sage Publishing. Pp 15
Rodgers, Carl (1980) Aspects of a person centred Approach, in, A Way of Being. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pp 116
Rodgers, Carl (1980) Aspects of a person centred Approach, in, A Way of Being
Watson, J.B. (2009) Introduction to the transaction edition, in, Behaviourism. 7th ed. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Pp ix
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