Rd Exam Module #1

Topics: Milk, Meat, Dairy products Pages: 3 (1119 words) Published: July 27, 2013
Module 1 – Domain I Food Science – Physical and Chemical Properties of Food| After reviewing Module 1 lecture, you should be able to: 1. Describe the chemical and physical properties of: * meat, fish, poultry, meat alternatives * eggs * milk and dairy products * flour and cereals * vegetables and fruits * fats and oils Meats, fish, poultry, meat alternatives Physical Properties of MeatsMeat Composition * Connective tissue – Collagen- white connective tissue which softens when heated; increased with age and exercise. Elastin - yellow connective tissue, unaffected by heat. * Fat – may be under skin or around organs; fat layered between tissues or muscles is known as marbling. * Pigments – Color primarily due to myoglobin and to a lesser extent hemoglobin; color varies with species and age. Meat QualityQuality grading is voluntary and includes: * U.S. Prime – highest quality grade; highest in fat and most expensive but also tends to be the most tender and flavor rich. * U.S. Choice – follows prime in quality; tends to have less marbling than prime but still good quality * U.S. Select – lacks some juiciness and quality of higher gradesInspection The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 requires all meat is inspected interstate.  The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 requires all meat is inspected, both interstate or intrastate. Factors affecting tenderness * Cut of meat - amount of connective tissue – cuts of meat in the rib and loin area contain less connective tissue and are more tender * Fat and marbling * Heredity and aging - as animals become older connective tissue increases causing meats to be less tender Chemical Properties of MeatsMeat Cookery * Dry Heat – used for tender cuts of meat; includes baking, broiling, pan-broiling, grilling, frying, roasting and stir-frying * Moist Heat – used for tougher, less tender cuts of meat; includes braising, stewing or cooking in water, and pressure cooking...
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