Module 1 – Domain I Food Science – Physical and Chemical Properties of Food
| After reviewing Module 1 lecture, you should be able to: 1. Describe the chemical and physical properties of: * meat, fish, poultry, meat alternatives * eggs * milk and dairy products * flour and cereals * vegetables and fruits * fats and oils Meats, fish, poultry, meat alternatives Physical Properties of MeatsMeat Composition * Connective tissue – Collagen- white connective tissue which softens when heated; increased with age and exercise. Elastin - yellow connective tissue, unaffected by heat. * Fat – may be under skin or around organs; fat layered between tissues or muscles is known as marbling. * Pigments – Color primarily due to myoglobin and to a lesser extent hemoglobin; color varies with species and age. Meat QualityQuality grading is voluntary and includes: * U.S. Prime – highest quality grade; highest in fat and most expensive but also tends to be the most tender and flavor rich. * U.S. Choice – follows prime in quality; tends to have less marbling than prime but still good quality * U.S. Select – lacks some juiciness and quality of higher gradesInspection The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 requires all meat is inspected interstate. The Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 requires all meat is inspected, both interstate or intrastate. Factors affecting tenderness * Cut of meat - amount of connective tissue – cuts of meat in the rib and loin area contain less connective tissue and are more tender * Fat and marbling * Heredity and aging - as animals become older connective tissue increases causing meats to be less tender Chemical Properties of MeatsMeat Cookery * Dry Heat – used for tender cuts of meat; includes baking, broiling, pan-broiling, grilling, frying, roasting and stir-frying * Moist Heat – used for tougher, less tender cuts of meat; includes braising, stewing or cooking in water, and pressure cooking...
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