Explain the purpose of a Pareto Chart. Give an example of when one would be used.
The Pareto chart is a type of bar chart that ranks related measures in a decreasing order of occurrence. The purpose of a Pareto chart is to separate the significant aspects pertaining to a problem from the aspects that do not have as much impact. This helps organizations know where to direct most of their improvement efforts. Pareto charts help eliminate the amount of time it takes for organizations to locate the defects within production processes. There are several times when a Pareto chart would be used, but an example would be a problem or occurrence that needs to be corrected. The Pareto chart would find the most likely cause and tell the organization where to focus its efforts.
Describe the origin and use of cause-and-effect diagrams.
Cause and effect diagrams originated in 1968 by Dr. Kaoru a noted Japanese quality expert. These diagrams are often called the Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams, and are used in order to show the causes of a specific event. Cause and effect diagrams are a way of visualizing how a variety of factors associated with a process affect the processes output. They show the relationship of all factors that lead to the given situation. The cause and effect diagrams are the only tool of the seven tools that are not based on statistical data.
What is a histogram and how is one used?
The histogram is a vertical bar chart that depicts the distribution of a data set. These types of graphs are used to show the frequency of data in an occurrence. Basically it represents how often something will happen, using information in the form of data values. A histogram can be used for a variety of reasons, one of which is to assist in decision making. The graph gives a better representation of the data that allows easier decision making. Also, histograms help summarize large data sets in graph form. Histograms are used to communicate a variety of information to the organization in a form that is easy to understand and also allows the organization to compare measurements to set specifications. The most beneficial way that a company can use a histogram is to display a data set and easily determine where the most improvement of a process should occur.
Explain the purpose of the scatter diagram. Give an example of how one would be used.
The scatter diagram is considered the most useful of the seven tools and is also the easiest to use. A scatter diagram is used to determine what the relationship is with two sets of variables. The purpose of the scatter diagrams is to help show what will happen to one variable when another variable is changed. This data can represent a positive correlation, negative correlation, or no correlation at all. The relationship of the two variables is represented by the slope of the diagram. An example when one would be used would be if you wanted to determine if the faster you travel, the better the fuel mileage you get.
What purpose is served by flowcharts?
The purpose of a flowchart is to show a visual representation of a sequence of activities that exist within a process. Flowcharts are made for those who are responsible for the activities and all other involved a better understanding of the processes. A flowchart can consist of inputs, steps, functions, and outflows that go into a process. The flowcharts tend to act a reference point for anyone that is dealing with a project or process. At any time the steps or sequences of activities can be easily readable so that all operations satisfy the specific requirements set up by the flowchart. The main idea of a flowchart is to ensure that all parties involved understand everything involved and complete processes on time.
Describe the PDCA Cycle.
The Plan-Do-Check-Adjust Cycle is a continuous problem solving cycle that is used for carrying out change and improving business processes....
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