Pyschology Chapter 18 Terms

Topics: Federalism, Federalism in the United States, Federal government of the United States Pages: 3 (683 words) Published: October 2, 2013

Key Terms for Chapter 18, Section 4:

conflict: a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

social trap: a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self- interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

mere exposure effect: the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

passionate love: an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

companionate love: the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

equity: a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

self-disclosure: revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

altruism: unselfish regard for the welfare of others

bystander effect: the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

social exchange theory: the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

reciprocity norm: an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

social-responsibility norm: an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

superordinate goals: shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

GRIT: Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction – a strategy designed to decrease international tension

prejudice: an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action

stereotype: a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people

discrimination: unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members

ingroup: “Us” – people with whom one shares a common...
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