August 30, 2012
Chapter 1- The Science of Psychology
What it means to be a psychologist
1. What is psychology
2. The growth of psychology as a science
3. Major trends in the development of psychology
What is Psychology?
-Psychology: the scientific study of the causes of behavior
A. Why is behavior studied
a. To understand human behavior
b. To explain why people do what they do
*If behavior has laws we can study and control those laws- goal of psychology -Example: Road Rage- explaining and describing this phenomenon
Step 1. Describe what road rage is- when is it road rage and when isn’t it? (study page 4)
-Fields of Psychology:
Areas of Psychological Research
1. Physiological- underlying chemistry, neurochemistry.
2. Comparative- compare things about species- ex- feeding habits 3. Behavior Genetics- manipulate genes to study a species-use mice- helps us understand particular behaviors. Genes code for protein
4. Cognitive Psychology- study mental processes and complex behavior (page 5) 5. Cognitive Neuroscience-study memory and attention. Study changes in the brain. Would look at the science behind complex behaviors. 6. Developmental- How our life and behavior changes throughout our lifetime (ex from toddler to teenager) and what doesn’t change. Figure out when certain abilities appear (ex. When we have the ability to count, do calculus, do addition) They can usually figure out when something is wrong ( like at birth if babies do not react to certain things- shows nervous system is where it needs to be) 7. Social- Look at how people behave in groups. How we react to people in different groups. 8. Personality- study and discover certain kinds of traits that people share or that are unique to people. Example- study conscientiousness- higher end of the scale- neat and clean-lower end- less caring. Study characteristics of people 9. Evolutionary-possible role of evolution in certain behaviors that exist. How do certain behaviors give you an advantage over others involving survival. Example- the most attractive genes tend to be passed on- body types, behaviors 10. Cross-Cultural: look for the differences between cultures. Study the way different cultures perceive the world 11. Clinical- help people with psychological problems. Ex. Depression, schizophrenia Research Question: Why do People Play?
Physiological- what events happen in the brain when people play? Comparative- Do animals other than people play?
Cognitive: how does the brain react to play?
Cognitive Neuroscience- what brain injuries interfere with playing? Developmental: How does play change across the lifespan? Ex. Games you play at certain ages Social- what kinds of cues affect the types of games that people will play with each other? Example- playing with dolls with 3 year olds- playing with dolls in class? Personality: are there certain types of people who are more or less likely to play? Cross-Cultural: Do people raised in different cultures play similar games? Clinical- what effects does play have upon our mental health? Healthy and not healthy play Applied Psychology
Clinical Neuropsychologist- What behavioral consequences result from a disease or trauma, and how can they be remedied? Health Psychologist-What behavior and lifestyle choices maintain health and prevent illness? Ex. Smoking, too much drinking, heart disease (fast food) School Psychologist- What strategies can be used to treat problems (ex.- poor learning, violence, substance abuse, shyness) in schools? Consumer Psychologist- What motivates the consumer to purchase products? Community Psychologist- How can social systems be improved in a way that is beneficial? Community cleanups, get city to build things that look better so people feel better. Organizational Psychologist- What interventions will improve productivity and job satisfaction?...
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