Principles of Physical Chemistry

Pages: 7 (1192 words) Published: June 21, 2013
Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR

Credit Hour: 4 credit hours
Unit code: FHSC1114 Unit title: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Course of study: Foundation in Science

Contact Hours: 2 lecture contact hours per week for the duration of 14 weeks. 1 tutorial contact hour per week for the duration of 12 weeks. 2 practical contact hours per week for the duration of 10 weeks.

Mode of delivery: Lecture, tutorial & experiment Attendance for lectures, tutorials and experiments are compulsory for every student. Main Text: Kotz, J. C., Treichel, P. M., & Townsend, J. R. (2012). Chemistry & chemical reactivity (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Method of Assessment
No. Method of Assessment 1. Coursework a) Test 1 & 2 (15% each) b) Experiment (20%) 2. Final Examination Grand total Total 50%

50% 100%

Chapter Scopes

FHSC1114 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 Principle of Chemistry

Relative Atomic Masses of atoms & molecules Mass number & atomic number Atomic structure (neutrons, protons & electrons) Mole concept & conversion Avogadro’s concept Empirical & molecular formulae Isotopes

FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry

Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR

Objectives
To define relative atomic masses of atoms & molecules To define & determine mass no. & atomic no. To determine no. of neutrons, protons & electrons To understand mole concept & Avogadro’s concept To determine the empirical & molecular formulae

Atomic Composition
3 subatomic particles made up all atoms: Electrically positive protons Electrically neutral neutrons Electrically negative electrons

Structure of An Atom

Table: Properties & Location of Protons, Neutrons & Electrons In Atom Subatomic Symbol Relative Mass Mass Location Particle electrical (g) (amu) charge Proton p+ +1 1.6726 1 In the x 10-24 nucleus Electron e-1 9.1094 0.0005 Outside x 10-28 the nucleus Neutron n0 0 1.6749 1 In the x 10-24 nucleus

1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1.6605 x 10-24 g

ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons

A

X
Z

Mass number Element symbol Atomic number

MASS NUMBER (A)
Sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Mass number (A) = Number of protons + Number of neutrons = Atomic Number (Z) + Number of neutrons

Example : What is the atomic number and the mass number of the element FLUORINE that contains 9 protons and 10 neutrons ? Write the element symbol. Atomic number = Mass number =

FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry

Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR

Isotopes
Atoms of an element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers (with different number of neutrons) e.g. Hydrogen-1, Hydrogen-2, Hydrogen-3 1 1

Exercise
How many neutrons are in each isotope of oxygen? Write the symbol of each isotope. Oxygen (atomic no.) = 8 a) Oxygen-16 b) Oxygen-17 c) Oxygen-18

H

2 1

H

3 1

H

Protium 1p&0n

Deuterium (D) 1p&1n

Tritium (T) 1p&2n radioactive

Relative Atomic Masses
Masses of fundamental atomic particles often expressed in atomic mass units (amu) The mass of an atom is measured relative to the mass of an atomic standard, Carbon-12 1 carbon atom has a mass of 12.000 amu Atomic mass of an element − the average relative mass of the isotopes of that element compared to atomic mass of carbon-12 (12 amu)

1 amu → 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon with 6 protons and 6 neutrons (a carbon-12 atom) 1 amu = 1.66054 × 10 -24 g Average atomic mass → a weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes present in the sample Average atomic mass = [(% abundance isotope 1)/100] (Isotopic mass 1) + [(% abundance isotope 2)/100] (Isotopic mass 2) + ……….

Example :
Isotope Isotope mass (amu)
63 65 29Cu 29Cu

Relative Molecular Masses
62.9298 64.9278 Abundance (%) 69.09 30.91 The mass of one MOLECULE of the substance compared to 1/12 the mass of one ATOM of carbon-12 isotope. Its symbol is Mr. Mr is calculated by adding together the...
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