Topics: Posttraumatic stress disorder, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Psychological trauma Pages: 8 (2176 words) Published: May 17, 2014

Chapter 13- Stress, Coping, and Health
Preview Questions- Pgs 521- 551

1. What is stress?
As any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities. The threat may be to immediate physical safety, long- range security, self- esteem, reputation, peace of mind, or many other things that one values.

2. How is significant are minor, everyday stressors?
Stress is a common, everyday event, and even seemingly minor stressors or hassles can be problematic. To a large degree, stress is subjective and lies in the eye of the beholder.

3. How objective are our appraisals of stress?
The experience of feeling stressed depends on what events one notices and how one chooses to appraise or interpret them. Events that are stressful for one person may be routine for another.

4. What is frustration?
Occurs win any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted. In essence, you experience frustration when you want something and you can’t have it. Everyone has to deal with frustration virtually every day. Traffic jams, difficult daily commutes, and annoying drivers, for instance, are a routine source of frustration that can elicit anger and aggression.

5. What are the three types of conflicts?
There are three principal types of conflicts: approach- approach, avoidance- avoidance, and approach- avoidance. The third type is especially stressful. Vacillation is a common response to approach- avoidance conflict.

6. Which types of conflict are especially stressful?
Life changes are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment. Thomas Holmes, Richard Rahe, and their colleagues first demonstrated the importance of life changes in the 1960s. Theorizing that stress might make people more vulnerable to illness, they interviewed thousands of tuberculosis patients to find out what kinds of events had preceded the onset of their disease. Surprisingly, the most frequently cited events were not uniformly negative.

7. What evidence led to the conclusion that life changes are stressful? Changes in individual’s views, personal relationships, changes at work, in finances, and so forth can be stressful even when the changes are welcomed.

8. What is pressure?
It involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way. You are under pressure to perform when you’re expected to execute tasks and responsibilities quickly, efficiently, and successfully. Although widely discussed by the general public, the concept of pressure has received scant attention from researchers.

9. What are some common emotional reactions to stress?
Stress often triggers emotional reactions. These reactions typically include anger, fear, and sadness. In times of stress, emotions are not uniformly negative and positive emotions may foster resilience. Emotional arousal may interfere with coping. According to the inverted- U hypothesis, task performance improves with increased arousal up to a point and then declines. The optimal level of arousal depends on the complexity of the task.

10. How does emotional arousal affect performance?
Emotional responses are a natural and normal part of life. Although emotional arousal may hurt coping efforts, that isn’t necessarily the case. The inverted- U hypothesis predicts that task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal- up to a point, after which further increases in arousal become disruptive and performance deteriorates.

11. What are the three stages of the general adaption syndrome? Selye’s general adaption syndrome describes three stages in physiological reactions to stress: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Diseases of adaption may appear during the stage of exhaustion.

12. What tends to happen physiologically when people feel stressed? Physiological arousal in response to stress was originally called the fight or flight response...
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