Populations study guide

Topics: Petroleum, Sustainability, Peak oil Pages: 13 (2531 words) Published: March 13, 2014
HL Geography study guide
Unit 4: Patterns in resource consumption

Carrying capacity
the max. population size that an area can sustainably support given the current conditions and resources available Population ceiling
the point where Earth’s ability to support us is lower than our ability to produce more babies; acts as a barrier/lid to population growth Optimum population
when there’s a balance between the people in a country and the availability of its resources and technology, ensuring the highest possible SOL (e.g. Singapore’s gov believe it is 7 mil. [near]) Overpopulation

(lack of resources) when there are too many people given the available resources and technology for them to maintain adequate SOL (e.g. Bangladesh) Under population
(surplus of resources) when there are more resources compared to the population – SOL is lower than it could potentially be; not enough people to properly exploit resources (e.g. Canada)

Carrying capacity can vary between natural environments
Bangladesh: 500 people per km2
Fertile soil
Delta: flood deposits silt
Sahel (band of countries south of Sahara): 10 people per km2 Dry and semi-arid (lack of rain)
Carrying capacity can be affected by technology
Enables countries to increase their CC

Malthus: English clergyman and economist
Pessimistic view on the dangers of overpopulation
Population grows geometrically; food supply arithmetically
Population held in check with:
“Preventative checks” – methods to reduce fertility (e.g. abstinence, delaying marriage) “Positive checks” – anything that increases mortality (war, disease) Neo-Malthusians:
Population growth would put pressure on land, so more marginal land must be cultivated  economic development slows down****** Paul Erhlich
Famous Neo-Malthusian concerned that checks are diminishing as healthcare and sanitation improve The Club of Rome
Manages population growth, use of resources
Emphasis on food production and conservation
Boserup: Danish economist
Optimistic view on the benefits of population growth
Pressure on agriculture stimulates invention and improvements “Necessity is the mother of invention”
Julian Simon
Each new person is a fresh source of ingenuity

Ecological footprint
The hypothetical amount of land needed to produce all resources and absorb all wastes for a given population, using current technology Currently 2.1 ha. per person (> Earthshare)
Bangladesh: 0.5
Australia: 7.1
UAE (highest): >10
Carrying capacity
The max population that a given area can support
The biologically productive land and sea area available to provide resources for consumption and absorption of waste, given current technology Ecological reserve: footprint < biocapacity
Ecological deficit: footprint > biocapacity
Ensures resources are used in a way that will make it available to future generations and the environment is not damaged Conservation
Measures taken to preserve resources used by people to make them last longer Hectare
100m x 100m (10,000m2)
Global hectare
1 global ha. = 1 ha. of biologically productive space with world average productivity Earthshare
The avg. amount of global resources available per capita
Currently: 1.9-2.0 global hectares per person
Ecological deficit
When a country’s ecological footprint > its biocapacity
Global ecological overshoot: world’s ~ (began in 1980s)
Measure of total flow of goods and services produced over a specific time; obtained by valuing outputs at market prices Primary production
Extracting/growing/harvesting materials from their raw state (agriculture, fishing, mining, etc.) Recycling
Process of collecting, sorting, cleansing, and reconstituting materials that would otherwise become waste – returning them to the economic stream as raw materials for new products Global Footprint Network

The organization which supplies footprint data to major organization worldwide Composite indicator
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