top-rated free essay

Plato and Aristotle Life and Views on Poetics

By janevillena Jul 03, 2013 772 Words
1. Plato's parents were Ariston and Perictone, his older brothers were Adeimantus and Glaucon, and his younger sister was Potone. He came from a family that had long played an important part in Athenian politics. He was born from an aristoctratic and wealthy family. 2. Plato wrote mostly in the form of dialogue. His dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. Plato absorbed the learning of his times, - Philolaus, Timaeus, Heraclitus, Parmenides, and then his master, Socrates, which entitles him to stand as the representative of philosophy. 3. Plato returned to Athens and founded his Academy. The Academy was named after Academos, who owned the land where the school was located. The Academy was an institution devoted to research and instruction in philosophy and the sciences. He presided over it from 387 BC until his death in 347 BC. His reasons for setting up the Academy were connected with his earlier schemes into politics. He hoped to train young men who would become statesmen. 4. One of Plato’s most ardent reasons for opposing poetry is that it incites and plays upon people’s emotions. He also attacks emotional poetry for its uselessness in society. He also objected on the ground that poetry does not cultivate good habits among children. 5. “Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something.” –Plato 6. Plato’s The Republic is less a dialogue than a long discussion of justice and what it means to the individual and to the city-state by Socrates, the main character. There are three elements to

the soul: the rational, the less rational, and the impulsive irrational; so there are three classes in the state: the rulers, the guardians, and the workers. The rulers are not a family of rulers but are made up of those who have emerged from the population as a whole as the most gifted intellectually. The guardians serve the society by keeping order and by handling the practical matters of government, including fighting wars, while the workers perform the labor necessary to keep the whole running smoothly. Thus the most rational elements of the city-state guide it and see that all in it are given an education equal to their abilities. The Republic ends with the great myth of Er, in which the wanderings of the soul through births and rebirths are retold. One may be freed from the cycle after a time through lives of greater and greater spiritual and intellectual purity.

1. Aristotle’s line of ancestry is mostly composed of distinguished physicians. His parents were Nicomachus, a physician and Phaestis, a woman of aristocratic descent; he had two siblings, Arimneste and Arimnestus. His father, Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. 2. Aristotle established his own school in a gymnasium known as the Lyceum. He built a extensive library and gathered around him a group of brilliant research students, called “peripatetics” from the name of the cloister in which they walked and held their discussions. The Lyceum was not a private club like the Academy; many of the lectures there were open to the general public and were given free of charge. His motive for founding the Lyceum is still unclear today, however part of the reason may be the obvious possibility that both during his years at the Academy and during his years away his philosophical interests had changed to the point where they were incompatible with the interests of the community in the Academy. He enjoyed the Academy and how it was ran, however he did not feel that he was free enough to influence the direction of philosophical activity. 3. Unlike Plato, Aristotle does not see instruction as the basic function of poetry. He agrees with Plato that poetry appeals to emotions, but he does not accept the contention of Plato that poetry is harmful to society. He believes that poetry has a beneficial effect on society contradicting Plato’s belief that poetry is useless in the society. 4. “Happiness depends upon ourselves.” –Aristotle

5. ‘On The Sublime’, is an essay which examines the work of more than 50 ancient writers under the lens of the sublime, which Longinus defines as man’s ability, through feeling and words, to reach beyond the realm of the human condition into greater mystery. It was written as an epistolary piece to “dear Terentianus,” Longinus focuses on figurative language as a vehicle for such flight, and argues that it is not just the writer who is transported by sublimity, but the reader as well.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Plato and Aristotle

    ...Plato and Aristotle Plato and Aristotle were two philosophers who made an impact on philosophy as we know it as today. Plato is thought of as the first political philosopher and Aristotle as the first metaphysical philosopher. They were both great intellectuals in regards to being the first of the great western philosophers. Plato and Aristo...

    Read More
  • Justice According to Plato and Aristotle

    ...Justice According to Plato and Aristotle Justice has always been an interesting topic for philosophers and also for ordinary people. Justice can be defined briefly as “the fairness in the way that people are treated” (Collins Cobuild, p. 910). Plato and Aristotle, two leading figures of ancient Greek civilization, were earliest philosophers...

    Read More
  • Plato and Aristotle Views on Forms

    ...The views of Plato and Aristotle are different but to some extent similar. Plato was mostly known for Theory of Forms and Aristotle was basically known for his thoughts in metaphysics. Even though they both thought a bit differently they did agree in a few things, for instance, Plato and Aristotle not only impacted social life in the past but th...

    Read More
  • Political Justice: Plato and Aristotle

    ...Plato and Aristotle had different ideas of politics and political justice. In The Republic, Plato creates the ideal city, which is needed to guarantee justice. He aims to create a peaceful united city that will lead to the greater good of the community and individuals. Unlike Plato who imagines the ideal city, Aristotle looks at actual cities in...

    Read More
  • Mimesis: Plato and Aristotle

    ...Mimesis: Plato and Aristotle 1,515 Words Philosophy 2348: Aesthetics\ The term ‘mimesis’ is loosely defined as ‘imitation’, and although an extensive paper could be written about the cogency of such a narrow definition, I will instead focus on Plato and Aristotle’s contrasting judgements of mimesis (imitation). I will spend on...

    Read More
  • Plato and Epicurus’ Views on the Best Life

    ...Plato and Epicurus’ views on the Best Life Epicurus put most of his emphasis on sensory knowledge, but he also believed that natural science must be studied as well. Why would he tell his readers to study nature? I think we should study nature not just for the knowledge of the natural world, but because it will free us from superstition ...

    Read More
  • Comparing Aristotle and Plato

    ...Connor High Classical Political Thought 12/15/10 Examining Plato and Aristotle’s Political Regimes Structures Plato and Aristotle both understood the importance of wisdom and virtue in founding a good regime. In their writings, they suggest the effect they felt a ruler had on a regime and vice versa. Where Plato saw a linear slope ...

    Read More
  • Aristotle and Plato Compared

    ...In the second book of The Politics, Aristotle digresses from Plato’s recommendations and provides a counter framework for what he believes is an ideal state. The best ideal state according to Aristotle is one that is not ruled by philosopher kings. This main feature of rulership is what distances Aristotle from Plato. Is it natural for there t...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.