- Name the four major types of cells in the human body, and describe their defining characteristics. - Describe the distribution of water in the body, and define the different body fluid compartments. - Define homeostasis and explain its significance to the function of the body. Describe the role of negative feedback in homeostasis. - Describe how negative feedback systems regulate body temperature. Include the role of sensors, effectors, input, output, integrating center, set point, error signal, and regulated variables.
Guided Student Activities
Organization of the Body, 1.1 page 2
1. Physiology is the study of what?
The study of the functions of organisms comes in many forms-plant physiology, cell physiology, microbial physiology, and animal physiology, to name a few. Human physiology focuses on how the human body works. 2. What does pathophysiology refer to?
Pathophysiology refers to when normal body function is disrupted-to better demonstrate typical body function. 3. How would you describe an organ system?
A collection of anatomical structures, that works together to carry out a specific function. 4. The text uses the cells (The smallest living unit) in the brain as an example of how morphology (these are classified into four groups according to differences in their four general shapes) can be used to classify them into groups. But it also points out that even with these different morphologies these cells (neurons) are all in the same functional category because they transmit what?
They transmit information in the form of electrical signals from one body location to another.
Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems
5. What are the 4 major classes of cells?
1. Neurons 2. Muscles cells 3. Epithelial cells 4. Connective tissue cells. 6. What is the primary basis for these classifications?
7. Neurons are specialized to do what?
They are specialized to transmit information in the form of electrical signals.
8. Muscle fibers are specialized to do what?
They are specialized to contract, thereby generating mechanical force and movement. 9. Which muscle is under voluntary control and which muscles are under involuntary control?
These cells found in the muscles of the arms, legs, and other body parts whose movements are under voluntary control (called skeletal muscle), but they are also found in structures not under voluntary control, such as the heart (cardiac muscle) and blood vessels (smooth muscle). 10. Epithelial cells are found in what tissue and how is it formed?
In tissues called epithelia (singular: epithelium), which consist of a continuous, sheetlike layer of cells in combination with a thin underlying layer of noncellular material called basement membrane. 11. What noncellular material acts as an underlying layer to epithelia? Basement membrane.
12. What do the terms simple, stratified, squamous, cuboidal, and columnar mean in terms of epithelia?
One cell thick (simple) or several cells thick (stratified), and cells may very in shape from short and flattened (squamous), to regular square-shaped (cuboidal), and in the some cases to tall and oblong (columnar). 13. What is the function of epithelium?
Cells join closely together to form a barrier that prevents material on one side of the epithelium from mixing freely with material on the other side. 14. What is the lumen?
The interior cavity of a hollow organ or vessel.
15. What is the role of epithelial cells in transportation of specific materials? They are specialized to transport specific materials, such as inorganic ions, organic molecules, or water, from one location to another.
16. What are glands and what is the difference in endocrine and exocrine glands?
Some epithelial cells form glands; organs specialized in the synthesis and secretion of a product. Two types of glands are distinguished: exocrine and endocrine Exocrine glands secrete a product into a...
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