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Philosophy 1

By eksdiiAmor Jul 28, 2013 1179 Words
WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY

Asking questions - Common hobbies of a philosopher
-e.g., “Who am I?”, “Why are we here?”

* Philosophy pursues the Faculty of Wonder.
* opens someone’s mind
* leads us to more important questions
* Philosophy – code of questions
* Love of wisdom
* Moth in life
* Analyzing the different facts of life
* Self examination
* Study of nature
* Three concepts of Philosophy – acc. To Bonifacio
1. Intellectual presuppositions – personal philosophy
2. Reflective activities – questions in connecting intellectual presuppositions (e.g., evolution of “pasma”) 3. Reconstructed beliefs/ value system – mostly used by philosophers * Philosophy – makes the world go round

* Feminist philosophy
* Questions are more important than answers
* Has never ending answers
(Language and reality) – Why did she died
* Philosophy – not a statement of ordinary perceptions
* Not empirical questions
* Not historical questions
* Not arithmetic questions
* Study of reality
* Study of justifications
* Analysis of various concepts that is central to our thought. (Nature of Philosophy)
* Philosophy as:
* Speculation – higher point of view
* There have differences in perspectives: in same level and above the level * Philosophy – talks about foundation
* Seeing things in other perspectives
* Philosophers think the world not a specific “stuff” * Criticism – something as speculation makes sense to speculations. * Aristotle’s golden ring

* Philosophy – acquires knowledge
* It exist in the reality
* Ethics – human conduct
* “habits” – virtues
* Good, civil, morally
* Prescribed (do’s)
* Proscribed (do not)
* Epistemology – clarify ideas
* “how do we know”
* Justification of knowledge
* Skepticism – doubt
* Metaphysics – reality
* Aristotle’s after physics
* Movie “inception”
* Appearance vs. Real
* Everything is material
* Philosophy in religion
* Man and his relationship with God
* Nature with God
* Validity
* Road to Emmaus (Bible)
* Socio-political Philosophy
* Origin of social philosophy
* Aesthetics – “aesthetis”
* What is beauty?
* What is good? With beauty and alone?
* Mostly visual
* Sometimes auditory
* Philosophy of science – cloning
* Movie “pavilion”
* 2045: uploading mind

(Knowledge and Wisdom)
* Wisdom - comprehensive vision must also have emotions. (comprehensive: looking in infinite period) * As the knowledge increases, there has been correlative increase in wisdom * Can be taught

* Emancipate – to be free from being chained to ourselves/ hobbies and personal biases “Hard to live with complete partiality “
* What is Philosophy?
* Begins with questions
* Centers questions about ourselves

“Man fear what they do not understand.”
* Make choose or value up judgment.
* Self-conscious understanding

“Humans are lazy thinkers.”

(Value of Philosophy)

* Define – “de-finis”
* To fence in
* In Philosophy, “cannot put in”
* Philosophy – there’s no end
* For Philosophy
* For instinctive people. Their habit.
* Philosophers widened their minds by philosophy
* “may not” answer a question but opens the possibilities Question: Consciousness is necessity in the universe?
* Philosophy – measured our minds great
* Minds rendered great
“We are like water.” – Bruce Lee
* Insight – seeing with the man’s eye
* Conceptual analysis - We can analyze insight
* Abstracting
* Crystallizes metaphor
* Cannot exhaust
(What is critical thinking?)

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
* Philosophy – started from explanations
* Myths – explains phenomena
* Stories; insights
* Example: the four seasons
* Homer - 700 -500 BC
* Wrote Greek mythologies
* Greeks criticize his writings and saw something wrong. * Religion finds explanations in Natural Philosophy in Greek times and focused the question, “Where did the world begun?” * Urstuff – basic stuff

* Source of everything
* Thales – everything came from water
* Anaximander – “impossible that everything came from limited things.” * Everything came from boundless
* Anaximenes – everything came from air or vapor
“You never step on the same river twice.”
“The only permanent in this world is change.”
* Pre-Socratics – raised another question, “the problem of change.” * Parmenides – rationalist; Socratics
* “nothing changes and our senses are unreliable”
* “reality deceiving us”
* Heraclitus – empiricist; sophist
* “Everything flows and our senses are reliable.”
* Empedocles – realizes that there are four roots: earth, water, fire, and air. * Said that both philosophers are true.
* Roots are combined in different proportions to form another stuff using love and strife (substance and force) * Anaxagoras – seeds
* “in every seed, there is everything”
* Have force that puts everything in order (force: noces – reason or intelligence) * Democritus – atom
* Eternal and imitable
* “a-tom” – un-culpable
* There are many kinds of atoms.
* Everything happens through necessity
* There are such thing called “soul atom”
* Composed of round atoms
* “Man has no immortal soul and not even reincarnation.” In 450 BC, philosophers shift the focus from natural philosophy to individual “The place of individual is society.”
Democracy
* Before:
* One senate
* Do not elect but represent
* Individually well-educated
* Rhetoric – persuasion of people
* Now:
* We elect
* Sophists – learned and men
* “Everything is relative.”
* Lectures insight
* Pythagoras – sophist
* “Man is the measure of all things.”
* Socrates – early writings of Plato
* Hasn’t have writings
* Virtues are unchanging
* Firm and solid
* There are really right and wrong
* True Insight comes with in
* Like his mom(a midwife) He gave birth to insight
* “can fade ignorance”
* Walang pinipiling tao o mapagtatanungan
* Wisest man in Greek empire
* Oracle and Delphi
* Messenger of the Greeks
* “There is one thing I know, that is I don’t know.” * “A man knows right, do right.”
* “knowledge is identical to virtues”
* “Do right is to ultimate happiness.”
* “Every opportunity improves your inner self.”
* “Wrongs are like obstacles.”
* Pinapatay ng mga mayayamaan.
* He chose to drunk hemlock (poison) and died in order to be happy than to live in misery. * Plato – much affected when Socrates died
* Study both nature and morals
* Finds the answer why Socrates sentenced to death.
* 2 worlds:
* World of senses- real world
* we feel
* Material world
* Everything exist
* Everything changes
* Shadows of world if ideas
* Reflection of the idea
* We only see reflection
* We try to be perfect; we try to get better
* World of forms
* Ideal world
* everything beautiful
* the reality for Plato
* “Man is a dual creature.”
* Has body and soul
* Body:
* Part of the world
* Imperfect
* Soul:
* Not part of world of senses
* Exist in world of ideas.
* Live in the world of ideas when body was not yet born. * Eros – love
“We find better things even though they existed because we know and we have the idea the there is the perfect thing.” (Book VII)
Plato explains that Socrates saw the real world but sentenced to death dahil sa kakulitan.

In 1596:
* Rene Descartes – father of modern philosophy
* Father of analytical geometry
* Certain knowledge
* Everything moves mechanically
* Soul is a life element not mechanical
* Certain about something
* “there is only one thing certain: Nothing is certain.” * Rationalistic
* Make simple things complex.
* Idea should be clear and distinct. It must be recognizable and cannot be confused with anything else. * Methodic doubt – doubting question
* Without doubting, you’re not thinking

* “Cogito erzo sum” – I think, therefore, I am. * Relationship between mind and body.
* Mind – res congitanz
* Thought
* Thinking thing
* Body – res extenssa
* Extension
* Extended thing
* Mechanistic
* reason
* The connection of the two is the pineal gland or the soul where consciousness of the mind comes * 3 ideas:
* Innate ideas – come from one.
* Adventitious ideas – coming from senses
* Factitious ideas – mixtures of elements from other ideas. * Pegasus – horse + bird
* Angel – man with wings
* “perfection” idea
* Cannot come from imperfect being
* Comes from something else, a perfect being – God * Proves the ideas:
1. Cogito erzo sun
2. Existence of God
3. Outer reality
* We can be deceive by qualitative property
* We cannot deceive by quantitative property
* “man cannot be deceive because God’s goodness”

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