PHIL 2200 REVIEW QUESTIONS1) Etymologically, what does Philosophy mean? Ancient Greek: Philo – Love, Sophia – Wisdom/knowledge. The love of wisdom.2) What is epistemology? Theories of knowledge
3) What is ontology?
The study of being.4) What is ethics?
A system of moral principles.5) According to Singer, what are four things that ethics are not? Particularly concerned with sex
An ideal system which is useless in practice
Something only intelligible in context with religion
Relative or Subjective
6) Explain Singer’s argument against Deontology.
Singer says that the rules of deontology contradict each other. He thinks that it is not sophisticated enough and needs a hierarchy. 7) Why does Singer think that ethics cannot be relative?
Because there would be no progress as everyone’s would be all actions would be morally correct. Are and must be universal. 8) Explain what it means to say that ethics involves a movement from the descriptive to the prescriptive. Ethic involves a movement from saying how things are – to how things ought to be. 9) What does deontology mean?
The science/study of duty.10) What is the difference between a hypothetical imperative and a categorical imperative? A hypothetical imperative represents a practical necessity concerned with the end. A Categorical imperative requires necessary action with no regard to ends. 11) What is Kant’s Categorical Imperative?
Kant says there is but one categorical imperative, “Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” 12) What is the difference between a priori and a posteriori? A priori – Prior to experience
A posteriori – That which comes after experience.
13) Why is autonomy important for Kant?
Autonomy – The ability to act morally objective rather than under the influence of personal desires. It allows us to assume we can treat others as ends, and will be treated as ends in ourselves. 14) What is utilitarianism?
The theory that the moral action is one which benefits the greatest number of people. Utilizes the “Greatest Happiness Principle.”15) What is the greatest happiness principle? Be careful to define happiness and unhappiness. Happiness – Pleasure with the absence of pain.
Unhappiness – Pain with the privation of pleasure.
Greatest Happiness principle – The ethical principle that an action is morally right insofar as it promotes the greatest happiness of the greatest number of those affected. 16) How is Epicurean hedonism a precursor to utilitarianism? Epicurean hedonism shifts the idea of pleasure from an individual to a social experience. Utilitarianism makes the same movement with ethics. 17) Why is it better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied? A human can appreciate the finer faculties of the pleasure they are experiencing. A pig only experiences pleasure on a purely sensory level. 18) According to utilitarianism, what is the only thing desirable as an end? Pleasure is the only thing desirable as an end.
19) What are the two kinds of opposites presented by Heraclitus, and what are the four examples he offers to explain them? Opposites produced by a single subject – disease vs. health, the road up/down, sea water (pure for fish and poisonous for man. Opposites connected by being different stages in a single invariable process – Life/death 20) Explain Heraclitus’ bow analogy.
Heraclitus’ bow analogy unapparent conflict as well as harmony through conflict. The strife between the bow and string is not obvious, the bow and sting are always in conflict even when the bow appears to be at rest. However, it is only through this conflict that a bow finds its usefulness. 21) What is the role played by strife in Heraclitus’ philosophy? Strife is inevitably, necessary, and the king and father of all things. 22) Why does Heraclitus believe one can never step into the same river twice? The river is in a constant state of change and cannot be considered the “same” river....
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