top-rated free essay

Periodic Table Notes

By bellavaron Jun 06, 2013 669 Words
The Periodic Table Notes
History of the Periodic Table
* Two main contributors
* Dmitri Mendeleev
* Henry Moseley
Dmitri Mendeleev – Russian
* 1869: published his periodic table with the 63 known elements * Arranged the first periodic table in order of increasing atomic masses Henry Moseley – British
* 1913 revised Mendeleev’s periodic table
* Today’s periodic table
* Arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers
What is the difference between Mendeleev’s table and Moseley’s?
Mendeleev arranged his table by increasing atomic masses.
Moseley arranged his table by increasing atomic numbers
Specific Areas and Their Properties
* Alkali Metals – Group 1 Metals
* Alkaline Earth Metals – Group 2 Metals
* Transition Metals
* Lanthanide Series – Rare Earth
* Actinide Series – Rare Earth
* Halogens – Group 17
* Noble Gases – Group 18
* Vertical columns on the periodic table
* Properties of elements are similar when moving down a group * Family 1: (Alkali Metals)
* One valence electron (gives up this electron when bonding) * Very reactive with water and very soft
* Burn if touched
* Never found alone on nature
* Stored in gasoline or kerosene
* Family 2: (Alkaline Earth Metals)
* Two valence electrons (usually gives up electrons when boding) * Slower to react than alkali
* Found in earth’s crust and in minerals
* Harder than group 1 elements
* Family 3-12: (Transition Metals)
* Number of valence electrons will vary
* Next to last electron shell is filled after some electrons have gone into the last * Most familiar metals are transitions (iron, gold, silver) * Tantalum (Ta) is used in skull plates

* Harder than alkali metals
* Less reactive with water than alkali metals
* Used for structure purposes
* Titanium (Ti) is used on hip replacement
* Harder and more brittle than group one or two
* Have colorful compounds (used in fireworks)
* Family 13: (Boron Family)
* Three valence electrons
* Includes Boron, a metalloid
* Includes aluminum, the most common metal, in the earth’s outer layer * Family 14: (Carbon Family)
* Four valence electrons
* Will give electrons to another atom or take electrons from another when bonding * Family 15: (Nitrogen Family)
* 5 valence electrons
* Will take electrons from another atom when bonding * Family 16: (Chalcogen – ore forming)
* Top two elements, oxygen and sulfur are commonly found in ores * Six valence electrons
* Will take electrons when bonding
* Family 17: (Halogens – salt forming)
* Nonmetals
* Iodine and bromine used in halogen lamps b/c allow tungsten filament to brighter w/o burning out quickly * Seven valence electrons – take when bonding
* Rare in nature
* Diatomic molecules – molecules that are made up of two atoms of the same element * Ex.: O2
* Family 18: (Noble Gases)
* A.K.A. – INERT
* Eight valence electrons
* Very stable; tend to not react with other elements b/c they have a full outer electron shell * Eight is a full electron shell in most cases
Why do atoms bond?
* Atoms bond to achieve a stable octet
* A stable octet is a full outer shell of electrons
* For most a full shell is eight valence elctrons
* Types of bonds
* Convalent – electrons are shared b/w two nonmetal atoms * Ionic – electrons are transferred b/w a metal atom and a nonmetal atom Lanthanide Series: (Sixth Period)
* Begins with element 57, Lanthanum (La)
* Elements in this series have similar physical and chemical properties * Usually found mixed together in the same locations in Earth * B/c properties are so similar the mixtures are difficult to separate, however recently they have been used in LED’s of laptops Actinide Series: (7th Period)

* Begin with element 89, Actinium (Ac)
* Have similar properties, difficult to separate
* Nuclear power industry uses Uranium and Plutonium
* Actinides heavier than Uranium are synthesized in the lab, they are not found in nature Lanthanide and Actinide Series
* Very radioactive
Regions and Their Properties
* Metals
* Shiny
* Malleable
* Malleable – hammered into thin sheets
* Ductile
* Ductile – drawn into thin wires
* Good conductors
* high melting and boiling points
* usually solids
* Tend to form positive ions when they bond
* Nonmetals
* Not shiny
* Nonmalleable
* Not dcutile
* Poor conductors
* Low melting and boiling points
* Tend to form negative ions
* Metalloids
* Elements that aren’t metals or nonmetals but have properties of both

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Grade 11 Chemistry - the Periodic Table Notes

    ...Chapter 11 - The Periodic Table 11-1 Organizing by Properties Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) russian, published his element classification in 1869 - increasing molar mass - matching similar properties Mendeleev's periodic table included gaps - yet to be discovered - predicted the properties of missing elements repetition in properties of ...

    Read More
  • Periodic Table Trends Essay

    ...Periodic Table Trends Quiz 1. The most reactive metals are located in the lower left hand corner of the periodic table 2. Which of the following atoms listed below has the largest atomic radius? Ca 3. Compared to the atomic radius of a rubidium atom, the atomic radius of a strontium atom is smaller. The smaller radius is prima...

    Read More
  • The Periodic Guide: Study Guide

    ...Lesson 03.01: History of the Periodic Table Explain how scientific observations led to the development of, and changes to, the periodic table. -Dmitri Mendeleev- first periodic table, organized 63 known elements according to properties, organized into rows and columns and wrote name, mass, and chemical properties on each -Julius Lothar Mey...

    Read More
  • The Importance of the Predoic Table

    ...The Periodic Table is a chart which arranges the chemical elements in a useful, logical manner. Elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number, lined up so that elements which exhibit similar properties are arranged in the same row or column as each other. Elements are also arranged in different families and periods based on similar ch...

    Read More
  • The Period Table Lol This Site Is Fail and Rip Off Boooooooooooooo Never Buy U Have to Submit a Frikin Essay Lol Fail

    ...You are probably wondering what this table of colourful boxes is? Well you’ve come to the right place, I hope. What is it? Well everything in the world is made up of elements, well almost everything, light, heat, this is energy, another story. And elements are a single type of atom, the periodic table is basically a table of all know elemen...

    Read More
  • Periodic Table

    ...CHAPTER 5: PERIODIC TABLE Development of the Periodic Table • i) Substance exist: naturally in elemental form Example: Gold, Uranium as unstable compound Example: Radioactive compounds as stable compound (majority) How to know whether a substance is a compound OR an element? ii) iii) • • • Grouping system: 1800: 31...

    Read More
  • The Periodic Table

    ...Table Of Contents The Periodic Law…………………………. 1. What Are Elements?..………………………2. Groups/Periods……………………………. 3. Electrons………………………………....... 4. The Families………………………………. 5. Metals/Non-Metals/Metalloids……………. 6. Ionization E...

    Read More
  • Periodic Table and Valence Electrons

    ...Name _________________________________________ Date _________________________ Period ____ Homework Chapter 7: Electronic Structure of Atoms Exercises: Sections 7.4, 7.5 : Ionization Energy and Electron Affinities 1. Write equations that show the process for (a) The first two ionization energies of gallium; first: Ga(g)...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.