"Out of Many" APUSH - Chapter 18

Topics: Cheyenne, Oklahoma, George Armstrong Custer Pages: 5 (1400 words) Published: January 22, 2014
 Oklahoma Land Rush
Oklahoma Indian Territory
5 civilized tribes –Cherokees, Chickasaw, Choctaws, Creek, Seminole Land Rush on “No Man’s Land” – April 22, 1889 – white settlers given opportunity to settle far western portion of OK Curtis Act 1889 – formally ended Indian communal land ownership thereby legally dissolving Indian Territory Oklahoma – “land of the Red Man”

At the close of the Civil War 360,000 Indians still lived in Trans-Miss. West.  Most in Great Plains. Plain Indians used guns, horses, relied on Buffalo
Sioux & Buffalo – gunpowder, improved guns, hunting by non-Indian traders led to rapid decline in Buffalo population. Exterminating of Buffalo sometimes encouraged by US Army Commanders to bring the Sioux to a point of desperation and cooperation. Sioux – “fight or die”

Many tribes took dramatic steps towards assimilation.
Cherokee – learned English, converted to Christianity, established a Constitutional Republic, and adopted yeoman-like lifestyle Bureau of Indian Affairs – in exchange for agreeing to live in defined zones (reservations) – Bureau would take care of basic needs and provide guidance. Sometimes corrupt govt. officials withheld relief/supplies for personal gain. Medicine Lodge Treaty 1867 – Comanche, Kiowa, Apaches, Cheyenne, Arapahoe moved into reservations in existing Indian Territory (Sioux, Shoshone, Bannocks) .  Conditions and cooperation between tribes caused hardships. Indian Wars

Cheyenne – Chief Black Kettle v. Colorado Volunteers
Colorado territorial governor John Evans terminates all treaties with tribes in CO. Black Kettle went to US fort for protection – they were given orders to set up at Sand Creek There they were attacked by Colorado Volunteers – 133 dead – Sand Creek Massacre Retaliatory raids followed

Great Sioux War – 1865-67
Sioux Warrior, Red Cloud fought US forces to a stalemate in Wyoming. Treaty of Fort Laramie – 1868 – temporary peace
Sioux were allowed to inhabit their sacred land the Black Hills “Paha Sapa” Treaty undermined when General George Custer reports that large easily extracted veins of ore were in region. Speculators move into Indian lands, General Custer rushes ahead to a site in Montana called Little Bighorn.  Met by one of the largest Indian contingents ever assembled. Custer and his men were wiped out – “Custer’s last stand” – 6/25/1876 Feb 1877 – Sioux leaders were forced to surrender by pursuing US forces. Apaches

Generally followed Medicine Lodge Treaty, but in 1874 some bands began to steal cattle seize territory. Led by brilliant strategist, Geronimo, they conducted lightning-swift raids against white outposts earning a reputation as intrepid warriors. Red River War

Apaches joined by Kiowa and Comanche
US Army prevails by preventing food supplies to reach Indians.  Geronimo surrenders in September of 1886. Nez Perce – “pierced nose”
Formerly helped white settlers including Lewis and Clark expedition. Gold discovered in their territory (parts of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon). Nez Perce ordered to cede 6 million acres (nine-tenths of their land) Chief Joseph reluctant but willing to cooperate arranged for movement onto reservations. However, younger members of his tribe killed white settlers avenging a death of a peer. This turned into skirmishes with US military. Eventually completely removed from all parts of their sacred land and moved onto reservations. Internal Empire

Mining Towns – gold, silver, and copper found in CO, AZ, CA, OR, WA, AK, & SD Boomtown phenomenon
CA pop 1848 – 14,000, CA pop 1852 – 223,856
Sometimes ore veins were large enough to sustain communities for a long time and created permanent cities – Butte, Montana Most consistently successful were the entrepreneurs who invested in mining equipment (drills etc.) and employers of engineers and other people with technical knowledge related to mining. Anaconda Copper Mining Co. – example of monopolizing both vertically and horizontally 1892 – Coeur d’Alene, Idaho –...
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