Organizational Behavior – is the understanding of how organizations work and how to have people perform efficiently. It is extracted from different areas of study, and is interested in how these fields are integrated into workplace behavior.
Basic Leadership Model – knowledge of OB x behavioral skills = leadership effectiveness
Organizational Behavior – 1) individual level is where members make sense of the world and derive motivation. 2) how teams function. How they deal, ethical decision making, and power politics. 3) Organizational level – how the firm is structured, selecting developing talent, creating sustaining a culture, manage change.
Behavioral skills – facilitate team decision making, effective communication, effective negotiation, use power wisely, and managers organization change.
Organization change over time – theories become more complex and and yet more accurate but they are harder to apply since they are all based on the situation and culture limits the applicability of these theories also.
Pre 20 century – work was done from home/crafts, orgs were military and church, Adam Smith division of labor and theories of use of machinery to save labor costs.
1900 – industrialism and mass production using division of labor.
1920 – scientific management fred taylor: cult of efficiency task analysis, standardization, pay by performance, training, and systemic selection. Classical management: Henry Fayle: PODSC: planning, organizing, directing, staffing, and controlling. Unity of command: one leader, specialization: doing one activity and people got good at it so replacing was easy. Scalar chain: the yields of an output TxC input multiplied by constant. Span of control: how many subordinates under control. During this time was 5 to 7 now its over 20.
1930 - Hawthorne studies by Elton mayo. Findings were that interaction in the test group had increased productivity; feelings and supervision had big effect in production. Informal groups also were formed due to interaction.
1940 –group dynamics: when teams made their own decisions they required more information to be shared with employees and yet this was complex but made them have a sense of commitment to the job. Bureaucracy with Max Weber: job descriptions, specific responsibility, written rules, right of appeal, fair and equal treatment and managing became a profession to learn.
1950- Task leaders were only concerned with accomplishing the task. Social leaders were concerned with employees. Limits to rationality suffice rather than maximize. There is a limit of how much info. You can absorb. Gordon Howell: it asked for professionalism and more scientific knowledge.
1960,1970-Systems thinking environment and organization explaining and predicting behavior. Contingency thinking variables on factors. Leadership is contingent on many factors.
1980 and now – Mckribbin porter studies asked for more communication, and social skills and cultural diversity.
Leader-awareness will make a better leader. Biographical traits, personality, attitudes and values, ability influences your perception and motives. And perception and motivation influence productivity, absence, turnover, and satisfaction. When hiring: skills, attitudes and values, and personality are looked at if you fit in the organization and see how well you work in teams. People who don’t fit in will have low performance high absenteeism/turnover.
Age-older people are less likely to be absent for avoidable reasons and more likely to be absent for unavoidable reasons. (such as illness). Older people have les employment opportunities. Their job provides them with higher wages and pension benefits. Productivity there is no relation with age. Positive satisfaction 60+.
Gender- no gender differences and no differences in productivity. Women are more likely to be absent because of children.
Marital status- in general married people are more stable, brings job to be more...
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