Who made up the opposition
What were the aims of the opposition
Some turned to terrorism – peoples will
Ides that peasants based revolution was unrealistic – peasants weren’t interested in politics Middle and upper class people- believed it was their duty to educate the uninformed peasants into revolution. Policy on ‘going to the people’ educated populist went to the peasants in country side in attempt to turn them into revolutionaries. Future of Russia handed over to peasant that made up mass population Over throw the tsar system
Widen the concept of the ‘people’ so it included not just peasants but all those in society that had reason to end Tsardom Social revolutionaries (SR)
-SR were weakened by the disagreement among each other so it lead to 2 different competing groups. right SR and left SR - SR were responsible for 2000 assassination
RSR- moderate members – believed in revolution. prepared to work with other parties to improve conditions of workers and peasants
1906 SR experienced support from the professional classes, trade unions and all Russian union of peasants RSR- believed in revolution
LSR- continue policy of terrorism gained from ‘people’s will’
SR- committed to ‘revolutionary socialism’ (change could only be achieved through violence and overthrow of government) and it would end the policy of private ownership by returning the land to those who worked it. land policy made them popular – peasants
LSR- argues policy ignored industrial workers
RSR- argued policy was unworkable in current conditions.
The Social Democratic party was a Marxist party
The SD split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
Plekhanov – promoted the idea of proletarian revolution- leader of SD. Members soon became impatient with Plekhanov because they wanted active revolutionary programme. The spokesman for this viewpoint was Lenin. Lenin criticised Plekhanov to be interested in reforms rather than revolution. Lenin stated that Plekhanov was focusing on policy of ‘economism’ (putting improvements of workers condition before need for revolution)
Achieve revolution by following ideas of Marx – behaviour of human was determined by social law. Marx claimed that critical human behaviour was because of class struggle (conflict between people with economic/political power and those without). Marx believed that human history was about to reach the its revolutionary victory of the proletariat (exploited working class) over bourgeoisie (owner of capital)
Transform workers into a revolutionary force for the overthrow of capitalism.
Lenin wanted working/ living conditions to get worse= bittiness of workers would increase and so drive the Russian proletariat to revolution. Bolshevik (Russian for majority)
Small, tightly knit exclusive party
No co-operation with other parties
Trotsky joined Lenin
Turn workers into revolutionaries
Involved terrorism and violence to raise money for their party
The Bolsheviks were a party of professional revolutionaries led by Lenin. They believed the government could not be reformed but must be completely overthrown with power being given to the working classes instead.
Menshevik (Russian for minority )
Mass organisation with membership open to all revolutionaries Support of trade unions in pursuing better wages and conditions for workers – ‘economism’ The Mensheviks were the moderate wing of the party that believed the government could be reformed by working with it rather than against it. Their main aim was to improve living and working conditions for urban workers and peasants.
Moderates- loyal to the tsar and his government
Commercial, industrial landowners
a group of middle class intelligentsia formed mainly of lawyers, financiers and industrialists and led by Guchkev and Rodzianko thought that the October Manifesto was as far as reform in Russia needed to go Believed in the maintenance of e Russian empire and regarded the October menifesto1905 and establishment of duma as a major legal progress.
They wanted Russia to remain an authoritarian state and eventually became the largest single party in the Duma after the Tsar had managed to get rid of more extreme members Kadets - Constitutional Democrats
Also known as party of peoples freedom
Largest liberal party
members of professions
small industrial entrepreneurs and academics such as their leader Paul Milyukov
Wanted Russia to develop as a constitutional monarchy(legal empire) in which the power of the tsar would be restricted by a democratically elected constituent (national) assembly.- believed that such representation of Russian state would be able to settle the political/economic/social problems