Exam #2 Review Sheet
Understand the relationship between body composition, age, gender & fluid Fluid composition of tissue varies by:
Tissue type: lean tissues have higher fluid content than fat tissues Gender: males have more lean tissue and therefore more body fluid than females Age: decrease in body water results partly from loss of lean tissue as people age
Understand how fluid is distributed in the body (intracellular vs. extracellular) Intercellular : distributed within the cell, 2/3 of body fluid Extracellular: outside the cell, 1/3 of body fluid, includes the Interstitial fluid flows between cells that make up a particular tissue or organ (muscle, liver) Intravascular fluid is the water in the blood and lymph
Plasma transports blood cells within arteries, veins, and capillaries
Review how the body regulates fluid balance and blood volume Know the effect of antidiuretic hormone on urine output
Review the concept of osmosis
Understand the relationship between blood volume & blood pressure Review slides on hypertension
Understand how body temperature is regulated
Know the roles & characteristics of sodium & potassium
Know what free radicals are & how they are generated
Understand where we get antioxidants & how they neutralize free radicals What conditions is free radical damage associated with?
Understand the main functions of Vitamin C & Vitamin E & Vitamin A Review the characteristics of beta carotene
Is there research supporting the use of vitamin C in treating colds? Understand how antioxidant enzyme systems function
Be familiar with the relationship between fat & fat-soluble vitamins What diet modifications can reduce your risk of cancer?
Understand the terms oxidation & reduction, & prooxidant
Understand oxidation / reduction reactions
Define bone remodeling & why this process is important
Understand which nutrients play biggest role in bone density Understand hydroxyapatite & the organic protein in bone
When is peak bone density typically achieved?
Review slides regarding vitamin D deficiency & dietary sources of vitamin D Know how we synthesize vitamin D
Know the primary role of vitamin K
Understand the results of too much & too little fluoride
Understand how blood calcium levels are regulated (& what hormones participate) Know what aids calcium absorption
Know the term amenorrhea
Know the two types of bone structure
Review rickets & osteomalacia
Know what the most common nutrient deficiency is
Understand function of hemoglobin
Understand what increases & interferes with iron absorption
Know the characteristics of zinc toxicity and deficiency
Understand the nutrient critical for health of newly conceived embryo and prevention of neural tube defects Know the components of blood & their functions
Which nutrient is important for blood clotting?
Understand passive immunity
Understand the difference between the eicosanoids produced from omega-3 fatty acids vs. omega-6 fatty acids Understand how vitamin B12 is absorbed & the functions of vitamin B12 Know what homocysteine is & how it is metabolized
Review heme vs. non-heme iron
Know which form of folate is more bioavailable and good food sources (folate vs. folic acid) Be familiar with microcytic & macrocytic & pernicious anemia and what the associated nutrient deficiency is Review the association obesity has functioning of immune system
Understand what BMI is & the ranges associated with underweight & overweight What is associated with increased abdominal adiposity?
What are the health risks of ‘apple’ vs. ‘pear’ shaped fat patterning How would you assess someone’s fat distribution pattern?
Review the 3 components of energy expenditure & the proportion each makes to energy expenditure What is the strongest determinant of someone’s BMR?
Understand if/ how much genetics contributes to someone’s weight Review the National Weight...
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