notes

Topics: Vedas, Rigveda, Vedic period Pages: 59 (16376 words) Published: June 1, 2014
Indus Valley Civilization –

The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BC; mature period 2600–1900 BC) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and is now in Pakistan. A uniform culture had developed at settlements spread across nearly 500,000 square miles, including parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Baluchistan, Sindh and the Makran coast. It was a highly developed civilization and derived its name from the main river of that region— Indus.

Year
Site
Discovered by
1920
Harappa
Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni
1922
Mohenjodaro
R. D. Banerjee
1927
Sutkagen dor
R. L. Staine
1931
Chanhudaro
N. G. Majumdar
1953
Rangpur
M. Vats
1953
Kalibangan
A. Ghosh
1955-56
Ropar
Y. D. Sharma
1957
Lothal
S. R. Rao
1972-75
Surkotada
I. Joshi
1973-74
Banwali
R. S. Bisht

Dholavira Rann of Kachh (Gujarat)
R. S. Bisht

Ganverivala Pakistan
Rafeeq Mugal

Rakhi Garhi Jeend (Haryana)
Rafeeq Mugal

Indus Valley Civilization culture divided into two parts
1. Pre-Harappan culture
2. Proto-Harappan culture
Cultures that preceded Harappan culture are pre-Harappan, while proto-Harappan cultures are those pre-Harappan cultures which have some close similarities with the Harappan culture or which may be said to have anticipated certain essential elements of Harappan culture. In short, all Proto-Harappan cultures are necessarily pre-Harappan cultures, but all pre-Harappan cultures are not necessarily proto-Harappan cultures. Script and Language –

Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish and a variety of human forms. The script was boustrophedon. Written from right to left in one line and then from left to .right in the next line. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600. The language of the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the Harappan script is deciphered. Pottery –

Harappan Pottery is bright or dark red and is uniformly sturdy and well baked. It is chiefly wheel made, and consists of both plain and painted ware, the plain variety being more common. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as glazed, polychrome, incised, and perforated and knobbed. The glazed Harappan pottery is the earliest example of its kind in the ancient world. Seals –

They are the greatest artistic creations of the Indus people. Most commonly made of steatite (soft stone). The majority of the seals have an animal engraved on them with a short inscription. Unicorn is the animal most frequently represented on the seals. Main type - (a) the square type with a carved animal and inscription, (b) the rectangular type with inscription only. Religion –

The chief male deity was the Pashupati Mahadeva (proto-Siva), represented in seals as sitting in a yogic posture on a low throne, and having three faces and two horns. He is surrounded by lour animals (elephant, tiger, rhino and buffalo), each lacing a different direction, and two deer appear at his feel. The chief female deity was the Mother Goddess, who has been depicted in various forms The worship of fire is proved by the discovery of fire altars at Lothal. Kalibangan and Harappa. Indus people also worshipped Gods in the form of trees (piapal, etc.) and animals (unicorn etc) Further they believed in ghosts and evil forces and used amulets as protection against them. Trade and Commerce –

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