Network Scheduling

Topics: Project management, Critical path method, Program Evaluation and Review Technique Pages: 25 (2805 words) Published: August 24, 2013
Project Time Management: Network scheduling techniques


Plan for today
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Feedback Recap of last lecture Network scheduling techniques


Feedback on Tutorials, Lectures, Groups
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Access to project scheduling software Project scheduling software demonstration? Some changes to lecture schedule Where are you up to - group work? Contacting me – Use LMS Blackboard


Recap of Last Lecture

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What is WBS? Various forms of WBS How to develop a WBS? How to code a WBS? Applications of WBS Possible causes of scope change Scope change control process The importance of formal scope change system

Scope change control system
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Recap of Last Lecture (cont.)


Recap of Last Lecture (cont.)
We are HERE!


Project Time Management: Network scheduling techniques


Learning Outcomes
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Estimate durations of work elements Construct AON networks using the given project information.


Time Schedule

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It is a series of dates against the work elements (activities) in the WBS. It records: When we forecast the work will occur When the work actually does occur

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The purposes of the schedule are:
To ensure the business benefits are obtained at a time scale that justifies the expenditure To coordinate the effort of resources To ensure the resources to be made available when required To predict the levels of money and resources required at different times so that priorities can be assigned between projects To meet a rigid end date 9

Simple Scheduling - Gantt Chart


Simple Scheduling - Gantt Chart


Simple Scheduling - Gantt Chart


The Scheduling Process

The basis approach of scheduling techniques (e.g. PERT and CPM) is to construct a network of activity/work element relationships. This network graphically shows the sequence, and interdependencies between activities in a project. Two major steps in solving the network: 1. 2.

Estimating the durations for work Sequencing the work using a network diagram


Network Techniques: PERT and CPM

The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) was developed by the U.S. Navy in 1958. PERT has been primarily used for R&D projects where % complete is hard to determine except at completed milestones. The Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed by DuPont, Inc during the same time period.


Network Techniques: PERT and CPM (cont.)

The differences between PERT and CPM include:

PERT uses three time estimates (optimistic, pessimistic, most likely). CPM uses one time estimate that represents normal time. PERT is probabilistic in nature, CPM is based on single time estimate and is deterministic nature.


Step 1: Estimating Durations

The duration of a work element is dependent on:
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The amount of time it physically takes to do the work involved, which is dependent on the number of people to do it The lead time, or waiting time, for the delivery Some mixture of two

Duration dependent on work content
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Effort Lost time (sickness, holidays, training) Availability, e.g. part-time worker Interference (Doubling the no. of workers ≠ halve the duration) Communication Productivity Duration = Work content ? Daily output 16

Duration dependent on lead time
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Delivery time for materials in procurement activities Preparation of reports Negotiations with clients or contractors Obtaining planning permission or financial approval Setting concrete, or watching the grass grow

Example: Construction estimating for Contractors


Steps in Estimating Durations (PERT) First step:  Estimates three times using three possible completion assumptions: 1.



Optimistic time, assuming that everything will proceed as planned with minimum difficulties. (This should occur approx. 1% of the time). Pessimistic time, assuming...
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