Negotiations Notes

Topics: Nonverbal communication, Communication, Negotiation Pages: 5 (1168 words) Published: October 12, 2013
Textbook Chapter 6

Chapter discusses what is communicated in a negotiation, how people communicate during negotiations, and how to improve communications during a negotiation.

Important to note that what is communicated is equally as important as what is not communicated

What is Communicated during a Negotiation?
There are 5 categories of communication that occur in a negotiation -Offers, Counteroffers, and Motives
oBargainers generally act according to their preference which is determined by their motives which are generally communicated in good faith during a negotiation oThe offer-counteroffer system is a dynamic and interactive one as well as situational to environmental factors—this process changes the parameters of the negotiations and alters the bargaining range to help reach a settlement point oA framework for communication is

Communication of offers is dynamic
The offer process is interactive as bargainers influence each other •Various external factors affect the negotiation
-Information about Alternatives
oHaving a BATNA generally alters how negotiators act within a negotiation oNegotiators with better BATNAs generally set higher reservation prices oNegotiators who are aware of their counterparties BATNA tend to set lower reservation points oNegotiators who have shared information about their BATNAs tend to reach better outcomes which indicates that negotiators should share information about their BATNAs to achieve its full benefit oStyle of communicating the BATNA is equally important (i.e. hostile or fair) -Information and Outcomes

oNegotiators tend to feel as if they got a good deal based on the outcome of their negotiation based on their own experience, however research has shown that once they are informed of the counterparties satisfaction the negotiator tends to feel less good -Social Accounts

oNegotiators may bring in outside information, especially when justifying “bad news” oThree types of explanations are important
Mitigating Circumstances (negotiator has no choice)
Exonerating Circumstances (negotiator is taking a broader perspective) •Reframing Circumstances (context changes to explain a decision) -Communication about Process
oNegotiators may discuss the state of the negotiation (i.e. how it is going, what can be changed regarding how it is being conducted) oThis can also lead to arguments: one strategy to mitigate this is to label the process as counterproductive

Three Key questions on what is communicated
-Are negotiators consistent or adaptive?
oWhile it is better to adapt ones style to each situation, research shows that negotiators tend to remain consistent reacting to a very small proportion of cues -Does it matter what is said early in the negotiation?

oBased on research, the first five minutes of a negotiation will generally set the tone of it—while controlling the initial moments may help a negotiator on an individual basis, it may not help the party-counterparty achieve a maximal integrative solution -Is more information better?

oResearch suggests that when counterparties know too much from their fellow negotiator they have difficulty fully understanding their counterparties position and may not be sure how to best achieve an integrative or even distributive result

How People Communicate in Negotiation
-Characteristics of Language
oLanguage operates at two levels
Logical (i.e. for proposals and offers—stated message) •Pragmatic (i.e. semantics, syntax, style—inferred message) •Polarized language is designed to create a you/me through use of language oPositive are used when speaking of own position

oNegative words are used when speaking of others’
Verbal immediacy
oCreate a sense of urgency or distance
Language intensity
oHigh intensity conveys strong feelings, low indicates weak feelings •Lexical Diversity
oHigh levels indicate comfort, lower indicate lack thereof
High-power language...
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