negotiation and conflict management

Topics: Communication, Sociology, Psychology Pages: 11 (2398 words) Published: May 30, 2014
Chapter 1
Human Communication: What and Why

How Do You Define Communication?
The official definition:
Communication refers to the process of human beings responding to the symbolic behaviour of other persons “The process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction”

Considering Attributes of Communication
Communication is considered a process, not a discrete occurrence It is continuous and ongoing
It is interactive
Communication is symbolic
Research: Some theorists believe that any behavior that has meaning to others should be considered communication whether it is intentional or not.

Communication is Symbolic
Symbols represent things, processes, ideas, events in ways which make communication possible Human communication is based on words, numbers and other symbols and the use of language. Research: Some theorists believe that any behavior that has meaning to others should be considered communication whether it is intentional or not.

Types of Communication
Intrapersonal communication-communicating with oneself. We do not always think in verbal terms, but whether the process is apparent or not, the way we mentally process information influences our interest with others.It is process of sensation and perception. Intrapersonal communication are impulses- feel pain, hunger, get anxious are examples; when we listen to that little voice in our heads; thinking. Even though intrapersonal communication does not fit the face to face element; it does not affect those forms of interaction. Example; you pause before beginning a 10 minute speech- the way you handle that situation would depend on the intrpersonal communication which precedes or accompanies your behaviour.

Dyadic or interpersonal communication- communicating or interacting with 2 persons; can occur in person or via mediated channels (telephone, email, text). Dyads are the most common communication setting.

Small group communication - communicating within larger groups (classrooms, parties, families) consists of multiple often shifting dyadic encounters. Small groups are common in every day life (co workers, families); characteristics that are not present in dyads-pressure from other members to conform; because of size-take risks, more creative; communication is affected by leaders who are in positions of authority.

Public communication- occurs when a group becomes too large for all members to contribute. One characteristic is the unequal amount of speaking time and limited feedback; more chance to plan and structure remarks than do communicators in a small group setting.

Mass communication/impersonal communication consists of those messages which are directed to a large, diffuse audience with no direct personal contact between source and sender via electronic, print media, newspaper, magazines, TV, radio, websites, and so on.; financed by large corporations so it is more of a product controlled by gatekeepers- producers of mass messages who determine what messages will be delivered to consumers, how constructed and when delivered-they have power to influence.

Functions of Communication
Physical needs
Identity needs
Social needs
Practical needs

Models of Communication
Linear Model: The Injection

Sender encodes ideas and feelings into a message; the receiver decodes the message Important element: communication channel
The method by which a message is conveyed between people (face to face; writing) Mediated communication channels- e-mail, faxes, voice mail
The channel you choose can make a big difference in the effect of a message.

Noise relates to the linear model as it can occur at every stage of the communication process Noise is a term which describes any forces that interfere with effective communication Three type of noise can disrupt communication

External (physical) Physiological and Psychological

Environment impacts the linear model because differing environments make understanding others...
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