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Module 1 Notes

By study1study2 Feb 25, 2013 1401 Words
PSYCH100-Module 1: The Science of Psychology Notes

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Textbook pg 2-27

Psychology
* Scientific study on causes of behavior
Causal Event
* Event that causes another event to occur

Different Fields of Psychology
* Physiological Psychology
* Studies the physiological basis of behavior
* Mainly through the nervous system
* Learning
* Memory
* Sensory process
* Emotional behavior
* Motivation
* Sexual behavior
* Sleep
* Strongly connected in understanding drug use/addiction * Comparative Psychology
* Studies behaviors of organisms to understand adaptive/functional significance of behaviors and their relation to evolution * I.e. Inherited behavioral patterns
* Courting/mating
* Predation/aggression
* Defensive behaviors
* Parental behaviors
* Behavioral Analysis
* Studies effect of the environment on behavior
* Effects of consequences of behaviors on the behaviors themselves * Belief that the relationship between the behavior and some consequence event is an important cause of a behavior * I.e. Cause and effect

* Behavior with pleasant results are repeated
* Behaviors with unpleasant results are unrepeated * Strongly related to drug use/abuse

* Behavior Genetics
* Studies role of genetics in behavior
* No two people will ever be the same
* Examine physical/behavioral similarities in blood relatives * Cognitive Psychology
* Studies complex behaviors/mental processes
* Perception
* Attention
* Learning/memory
* Verbal behavior
* Concept formation
* Problem solving
* Events that cause behavior consist of functions of the human brain that occur in response to environmental events * Used to treat drug addiction by teaching coping strategies * Cognitive Neuroscience

* Studies to understand cognitive psychological by studying brain mechanisms responsible for them * I.e. Study behavior of people whose brains have been damaged naturally * Diseases

* Tumours
* Strokes
* Developmental Psychology
* Studies the changes in behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience * I.e. Studying the effects of aging
* Helps how drug-taking behavior can change over time
* Social Psychology
* Study of the effects people have on each other’s behavior * Also plays a role in drug addiction
* I.e. Kids who start smoking because of pleasure; instead it is the opposite * Smoke because peers do/social influences
* Personality Psychology
* Categorize/understand the causes of the individual differences in patterns of behavior * Personality can also determine how susceptible a person is to drugs

* Evolutionary Psychology
* Explains behavior in terms of adaptive strategies that specific behaviors provided during the evolution of a species * Use natural selection as a guiding principle
* Must trace development of differences in species and explore how adaptive advantages relate to human behavior * Possibility that addictions are caused by processes not working in our benefit but interact harmfully with respect to certain substances that were not originally part of the early human environment * Cross-Cultural Psychology

* Studies the effect of culture on behavior
* Different cultures have different strategies to interact with environment * Laws/Customs
* Myths
* Religious beliefs
* Ethical principles
* Can be related to drug use
* Some cultural customs may involve drugs
* Clinical Psychology
* Investigation/treatment of abnormal behavior/psychological disorders * Most clinical psychologists are practitioners who try to help people solve their problems * The rest are scientists looking for causal events both genetic and physiological, and environmental factors (parental upbringing), and other social stimuli * Done to improve psychotherapy methods

Different Professions of Applied Psychology
TYPE OF PSYCHOLOGIST| AREA OF APPLICATION| EMPLOYMENT SETTING| Clinical neuropsychologist| Identify/treat behavioral consequences of nervous system disorders/injuries| -Hospitals| Clinical psychologist| Identify/assess/treat psychological disorders| -Private practice-Hospital| Community psychologist| Welfare of people in social system; disadvantaged| -Community organizations| Consumer psychologists| Motivation/perception/learning/purchasing behavior of people in the marketplace| -Corporations-Advertising agencies| Engineering psychologists/Ergonomists| Perceptual/cognitive factors in the use of machinery| Corporations/engineering agencies| Forensic psychologists| Behavior as it relates to legal/justice system| -Private law firms-Public agencies*Both in justice system| Health psychologists| Behavior that affects health/lifestyle| -Hospitals-Government-Corporations| Organizational psychologists| Behavior in individual in industrial work processes| -Corporations-Government | School psychologists| Behavioral issues of students in school setting| -Corporation-Government-Educational|

Philosophical Roots of Psychology
* Most important idea of the human behavior is the self-awareness of being conscious * With this awareness we relate it to our behaviors
* Consider alternatives
* Makes plans
* Act on plans
* Animism
* Belief that all animal and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force * PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE MUST BE BASED ON THE IDEA THAT BEHAVIOUR IS STRICKLY SUBJECT TO PHYSICALS LAWS LIKE EVERY OTHER NATURAL PHENOMENON * I.e. When dropped, rocks fall to the ground due to gravity, not because their spirits want to reconnect with the Earth’s spirits

* Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
* French philosopher/mathematician
* Investigated natural phenomena through sensory experience and human reasoning * Assumed world was a purely mechanical entity
* Ran its course without divine intervention from God * Challenged the Church’s idea that philosophy was to reconcile human experiences with the truth of God’s revelations * Thought animals and humans was a machine affected by natural causes and producing natural effects * I.e. Reflexes

* Automatic response to a stimulus
* I.e. blinking of the eye when an object approaches * Proposed that the human mind was not part of the natural world * Obeyed different laws
* Gave birth to DUALISM
* Belief that reality can be split into mind and matter * Suggested that a causal link between the mind and its physical housing * Refused to deny a spiritual basis to human actions

* John Locke (1632-1704)
* Replaced Descartes rationalism (pursuit of truth through reason) with EMPIRICISM * Pursuit of truth through observation and experience * Locke implied that at birth our minds were empty and open to the writings of experience * George Berkeley (1685-1753)

* Knowledge of events in the world requires inferences based on accumulation of past experiences * WE MUST LEARN TO PERCEIVE*
* James Mill (1773-1836)
* Introduced MATERIALISM
* Belief that reality can only be known through an understanding of the physical world which the mind is a part of * Assumed that animals and humans were the same
* Both were physical in makeups and subject to the physical laws of the universe * Believed that the mind was as passive as the body * The mind was like a machine

Biological Roots of Psychology
* Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)
* Italian psychologist
* Discovered muscles contracted by applying an electrical current directly to them or to the nerves attached to them * Muscles contained energy needed to contract
* Did not have to be inflated with pressurized fluid * Johannes Muller (1801-1858)
* Came up with the doctrine of specific nerve energies * Different nerve fibers convey specific info from one part of the body to the brain or from the brain to one part of the body * Noticed that the basic message sent along all nerves was the same electrical impulse * Stated the brain interprets impulses received from the nerves as visual sensations because optic nerves are attached to the eye * The brain is similarly specialized, with different parts having different functions * Pierre Flourens (1774-1867)

* French physiologist
* Operated on parts of the animal nervous system
* Observed what the animal could no longer do without certain parts and assumed that part for the particular missing functions * Experimental ablation
* Removal/destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region * Claimed to have discovered regions of the brain that control: * Heart rate/breathing

* Purposeful movements
* Visual auditory reflexes
* Paul Broca (1824-1880)
* French surgeon
* Performed autopsy n the brain of a man who had a stroke several years previously * Stroke had caused the man’s ability to speak
* Discovered the stroke damaged part of the cerebral cortex of left side o the brain * Suggested that this region of the brain is a center for speech * Gustav Fritsch & Edward Hitzig (1870)

* Introduced using electrical stimulation as a tool for mapping the functions of the brain * Later discovered by Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield that highly specific sensory experiences and even memories could be mapped in a similar way * Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)

* Demonstrated that mental phenomena could be explained by physiological means * Also concluded that too much variability between people to measure the speed of a person’s reaction to a physical stimulus * Ernst Weber (1795-1878)

* Introduced the idea that perceptual phenomena could be studied scientifically (like biology or physics) * Directly related to PSYCHOPHYSICS
* Measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience * DETERMINISM
* Doctrine that behavior is the result of prior events * Law of Effect
* Observed by Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)
* Stimuli that occurs as a consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again * Goals were satisfiers that caused the action to recur more frequently

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