State: laws enacted to control intimate relations
Culture: way of life, traditions, shared practices
Race: group of people; socially constructed
Ethnicity: group of people who share cultures and practices
What is Race?
Race as a biological construction
“biological race”: view of race that are hereditary. Terms like Black, White, and Asian. Ancestors determine membership in genetically defined racial group Race as social construction
“race” is a vast group of people loosely bounded by historically contingent, socially significant elements of morphology and/or ancestry. Ongoing, contradictory, self-reinforcing process subject to macro forces of social and political struggle and micro effects of daily decisions The GROUPING OF PEOPLE by shared historical experiences
Can’t deny it; it determines where we are
Susie Phipps vs Louisiana Board of Vital Records (1982-1983) Susie sued Louisiana to change her race from black to white; LOST She is descendent of 18th century white plantation owner and black slave. Declared black at birth because of 1900s law Lawyer fought it unconstitutional for us to have racial designation on birth certificate. 1/32nd of designation is too small Why significant?
Problematic racial identity is a parable of America’s unsolved racial dilemma. It illustrates: Difficulties of defining race
Shows how racial legacies of the past continue to shape the present Establishes deep involvement of the state in the organization and interpretation of race Show how race deeply shapes identity of American identity
Binary Traps of Race/Racial Process/Racism
Race as an essence (something fixed, concrete, and objective) and race as an illusion (purely ideological construct which some ideal non-racist social order would eliminate RACE IS NEITHER. Racial process: race as a social structure OR a cultural representation neither or situation If social structure (force superimposed on us) only, then difficult to document how it shifts, its patterns, origins, etc If cultural representation, then how it shapes structures, organizes institution is absent in discussion Racism: color consciousness or institutional power
Racism is color consciousness and find its absence in color-blind society. Therefore recognition of race is in itself racism. State uses race to organize society Racism is to maintain a system of power and therefore people of color cannot be racist because they do not have any power Racial Formation
Sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed and destroyed (they keep CHANGING) Historically situated projects in which human bodies and social structures are represented and organized Embedded in hegemony, the way society is ruled and organized Race is a consent in which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human RACE IS A PROJECT.
History of Miscegenation
Miscegenation first appeared during presidential election of 1864; before miscegenation the term used to refer to 2 diff races marrying was amalgamation Refers to “mixture of two or more races”
Promotes notion that interracial marriage is unnatural
1878 – marriage of black and white voided in VA; first miscegenation until 1967, that notion stood as taken-for-granted basis of American laws and policy in 1864, various states, not just in South, prohibited interracial marriages miscegenation applied not only to whites and blacks, but also Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, American, Indians, native Hawaiians, and south Asians did not apply to Mexican Americans – Mexicans are considered white when it comes to interracial marriages e.g.: Kirby case Joe Kirby Case
March 21, 1921: Kirby seeks annulment from wife of 7 yrs, MayallenKirby wants annulment based Arizona’s legal prohibition of marriages between “persons of Caucasian blood, or their descendants” and “negroes, Mongolians, or Indians and their descendants” Miscegenation laws...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document