Mba Group

International Journal of Business and Management

A Review of Study on the Competing Values Framework
Tianyuan Yu Institute of Enterprise Management, School of Business, Sun Yat-Sen University International Finance College, Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai Campus Jin Feng Lu, Tangjiawan, Zhuhai 519085, China Tel: 86-756-6126-600 E-mail: Nengquan Wu Institute of Enterprise Management, School of Business, Sun Yat-Sen University The Competing Values Framework (CVF) is one of the most influential and extensively used models in the area of organizational culture research. Compared with other models and scales, the CVF and its matched scale OCAI have better validity and reliability in the context of China, and are very convenient for practical operations. This article firstly introduces the development of the CVF, and discusses the meanings and prerequisites of different culture types in the CVF. Then the article briefly reviews some empirical studies using the CVF and OCAI, compares the CVF and OCAI with other major organizational culture models and scales, and finally points out future research areas for CVF’s application in China. Keywords: Competing values framework, Organizational culture, Effectiveness 1. The development of the CVF

The Competing Values Framework (CVF) was initially based on research to identify indicators of organizational effectiveness (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983, p.363). Effectiveness is a central theme in the organizational literature whereas its definition is perennially controversial. In a literature review Campbell (1977) identified 30 different criteria of effectiveness. Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983, p.365) held that the choices of particular criteria usually reflect personal values about the appropriate emphases in the domain of effectiveness. They invited 52 organizational researchers to order the criteria listed by Campbell (1977) and then derived three value dimensions: internal-external, control-flexibility, means-ends. They integrated the third dimension into the other two ones and established the CVF, as shown in Figure 1(Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983, p.369). One may certainly argue that it is insufficient to measure organizational culture values by only two or three dimensions. But CVF does not attempt to explore the panorama of organizational culture. Rather, it looks at the value dimensions related to effectiveness. Moreover, this model can integrate most organizational culture dimensions proposed in the literature. 2. The connotations of the CVF

2.1 The meanings of dimensions in the CVF Figure 1 illustrates the CVF. The first value dimension is related to organizational focus, from an internal, micro emphasis on the well-being and development of people in the organization to an external, macro emphasis on the well-being and development of the organization itself. The second value dimension is related to organizational structure, from an emphasis on stability to an emphasis on flexibility. Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983, p.370) pointed out that these two sets of competing values are recognized dilemmas in the organizational literature. For instance, Denison and Mishra’s (1995, p.209) case study illustrated that employee involvement activities can lapse into insularity and have a limited, or even negative impact on effectiveness, for the organization may overemphasize the internal integration and neglect the adaptation to the external environment. Similarly, the differing viewpoints in considering order and control versus innovation and change are at the heart of the most heated debates in sociology, political science, and psychology. 37

Vol. 4, No. 7

International Journal of Business and Management

While many social theorists have emphasized authority, structure, and coordination, others have stressed diversity, individual initiative, and organizational adaptability. The two dimensions of the CVF classify four models, each one containing a different set of...

References: Al-Khalifa, K. N. and E. M. Aspinwall. (2001). Using the Competing Values Framework to Investigate the Culture of Qatar Industries. Total Quality Management, 12(4), 417-428. Cameron, K. and R. E. Quinn. (2006). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework. Beijing: China Renmin University Press. Cooke, R. and D. Rousseau. (1988). Behavioral Norms and Expectations: A Quantitative Approach to the Assessment of Organizational Culture. Group and Organizational Studies, 13, 245-273. Denison, D. R. and A. K. Mishra. (1995). Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness. Organization Science, 6(2), 204-223. Deshpande, R. and J. U. Farley. (2004). Organizational Culture, Market Orientation, Innovativeness, and Firm Performance: An International Research Odyssey. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 12(1), 3-22. Detert, J. R., R. G. Schroeder, et. al. (2000). A Framework for Linking Culture and Improvement Initiatives in Organizations. The Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 850-863. Hofstede, G., B. Neuijen, et. al. (1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study across Twenty Cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2), 286-316. Howard, L. W. (1998). Validating the Competing Values Model as a Representation of Organizational Cultures. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 6(3), 231-250. Kwan, P. and A. Walker. (2004). Validating the Competing Values Model as a Representation of Organizational Culture through Inter-Institutional Comparisons. Organizational Analysis, 12(1), 21-39. Lamond, D. (2003). The Value of Quinn 's Competing Values Model in an Australian Context. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1/2), 46-59. Lund, D. B. (2003). Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 18(3), 219-236. O 'Reilly, C., J. Chatman, et. al. (1991). People and Organizational Culture: A Profile Comparison Approach to Assessing Person-Environment Fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487-516. Ouchi, W. G. (1979). A Conceptual Framework for the Design of Organizational Control Mechanisms. Management Science, 25(9), 833. Ouchi, W. G. (1984). The M-Form Society: Lessons from Business Management. Human Resource Management, 23(2), 191-213. Quinn, R. E. and J. Rohrbaugh. (1983). A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Towards a Competing Values Approach to Organizational Analysis. Management Science, 29(3), 363-377. Quinn, R. E. and K. S. Cameron. (1983). Organizational Life Cycles and Shifting Criteria of Effectiveness: Some Preliminary Evidence. Management Science, 29(1), 33-51. Ralston, D. A., J. Terpstra-Tong, et. al. (2006). Today 's State-Owned Enterprises Of China: Are They Dying Dinosaurs Or Dynamic Dynamos? Strategic Management Journal, 27(9), 825-843. Sousa-Poza, A., H. Nystrom, et. al. (2001). A Cross-Cultural Study of the Differing Effects of Corporate Culture on TQM in Three Countries. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 18(7), 744-761. Wang, Guoshun et. al. (2006). A study on organizational culture model: based on the improvement of Denison’s model and an empirical study. China Soft Science magazine, 3, 145-150. Wilkins, A. L. and W. G. Ouchi. (1983). Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship between Culture and Organizational Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(9): 468-481. Zheng, Boxun. (1990). The Assessment of Organizational Culture Values. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 32, 31-49.
Vol. 4, No. 7
International Journal of Business and Management
Human Relations Model (Clan) Means: Cohesion; morale Ends: Human resource development
Open System Model (Adhocracy) Means: Flexibility; readiness Ends: Growth; resource acquisition
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Preparing Domain and Group Structures
  • Oral Group Presentations an Essay
  • Essay on Group Dynamics
  • Importance of Group Essay
  • Essay about Group Dynamics
  • Individuals and Groups Essay
  • Different Types of Groups in Society Essay
  • Groups vs. Individuals Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free