Chapter 3: Intergovernmental Relations
Grover Starling Managing the public sector
• There are many separate jurisdictions that make up our federal government. All of these have very different relationships. • The U.S. federal government divides its central and regional governments. Each then has its own area of jurisdiction. There are two “cake” models of government.
One is the “layer cake” model of federalism, claiming that each is independent and is easily defined. The “marble cake” model demonstrates the cooperation and intermingling of U.S. governments and powers. It is generally said that federalism tends to recognize mainly national/state and interstate relations. However, it tends to ignore national/local, state/local, and interlocal relations. • There are 6 eras of federal-state relations in America. Dual federalism (1789-1933) where state and national were very distinct and separate. Cooperative federalism (1933-1960) included many grants and government help. Creative federalism (1960-1968) Grants programs were exploding, and they are still important today. These include the Secondary Education Act and Medicaid. New federalism (1968-1980) included revenue sharing, and consolidating program grants into block grants with few strings attached. New, new federalism (1980-1993) national priorities were changing and money was tight. New, new federalism saw a lot of tax cuts and mounting debt. Devolution (1993-present) Shows the power “rolling down” from National to State. • As more and more government grants were introduced, they became important staples and fixtures that identified American Government. In 1980, the government spent 40 % of the national budget on grants. However in 1990, it dropped dramatically low to 25 %.
Now, it is pretty much always around 30-32 %.
• Not only can presidents create new eras, they can also create: regional offices, Internet commerce, and appoint justices for Supreme Court. • Since the 1990's,...
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