WRITING A LITERATURE REVIEW
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Research process Definition of LR Objectives of LR Steps in writing LR Guideline for planning LR Checklist for LR
I .RESEARCH PROCESS
A research process – to recap... How you get the topic/topics of your thesis?
THE BASIC RESEARCH PROCESS
Phase I – Formulation: • Confirm Need • Define the Problem • Review Literature & Examine Theory • Develop Questions & Objectives • Specify Hypotheses • Formulate Research Design
Phase III – Analytical • Analyze Data • Interpretation and Inferences • Support / No Support ? • Identify Limitations • Prepare Report
Phase II – Execution • Select Sampling Method • Design Data Collection Forms • Collect Data • Check for Errors • Code Data • Store Data
II. WHAT IS A LITERATURE REVIEW?
Let us get the destination clear! The selection of available documents (both published and unpublished) on the topic, which contain information, ideas, data and evidence. This selection is written from a particular standpoint to fulfill certain aims or express certain views on the nature of the topic and how it is to be investigated, and the effective evaluation of these documents in relation to the research being proposed. 4
IN SHORT, LITERATURE REVIEW IS…
discussion of your knowledge about the topic under study A discussion of your knowledge that is supported by the research literature A foundation for the study A discussion of the gaps that will be addressed by your thesis
THE LITERATURE REVIEW IS NOT…
article-by-article, description of studies previously done A re-statement of the studies previously done A brief overview of articles
III. OBJECTIVES OF LR
A Literature Review has two broad objectives:
It helps to develop and expand your research ideas. It ensures you are familiar with recent developments and have a complete understanding of relevant topics.
Surely it would be more productive if I just concentrate on the fun stuff?
From your perspective:
it will probably account for up to 20% of your mark (even more counting the discussion) to identify gaps in the literature to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistakes as others) to provide you with some ideas you might not of thought of yourself
From your supervisors perspective:
to demonstrate you can access and evaluate others work to spark off ideas for future projects (cause they probably know less than you think) 8
Reasons for Doing a Literature Review
Helps to define the research problem and clarify research questions. Provides background information on the major issues. Suggests potential hypotheses. Identifies research methods and data analysis approaches. Gives guidelines on interpretation approaches used by other researchers in similar situations.
A LITTLE ADVICE ON THE RISKY TOPIC:
New Method High risk of criticism and possibly failure Old Method Should produce a satisfactory result May be of little value and not worthy of a Degree
Old Field Of Study
Should produce a satisfactory Result
Risk Profile of a Research Topic
Refer to your thesis topic, what are the objectives of your literature reviews? Hint: - Graduate employability in Malaysia - Objective of LR here: previous studies of graduate employability – measurement, high/low, factors, and policies; what are the possible gaps? Close your eyes and think and write it out...somewhere
STEPS IN WRITING LR
Literature Reviews often are divided into two stages: 1. The first stage reviews the literature to identify existing themes, trends, and relationships between variables. The end result of this initial effort is to generate ideas related to your topic that have not been researched...
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